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    Ministry And Ordination In The Uniting Church In Australia: An Historical, Contextual And Constructive Theological Study.


    [...]AL LIBRARY
    Uniting Church Centre for Ministry
    16 Masons D ve[...]0


    AN HI[...]
    Uniting Church Centre for Ministry
    16 Masons Dri[...]

    Ministry and Ordination In the Uniting Church In Australia:[...]s study analyses the history of the theologies of ministry and Ordination in the

    Uniting Church in Australia (UCA). Initia[...]lian Church. Chapter 6 analyses UCA

    documents on ministry and Ordination since 1957, highlighting the absence of an[...]
    [...]quires Australian theologizing, and a theology of ministry that allows the

    UCA to be effective In mission i[...]ns. New forms of ministries raise questions about Ordination,

    including whether Ordination as the 'setting apart* of some has an ongoing pla[...]gizing must be done by the whole people of God In ministry and

    mission in the world.[...]
    [...]............ x


    THE ISSUES................[...]............ 21
    The Ministry of the Word......................................[...]Calling, Authorization and Ordination...........................................[...]
    [...]The History of Wesley's Ministry..................................................[...].................... 76
    Church and Ministry after the Death of John Wesley...................[...]........117
    Church and Ministry..................................................[...]....... 122
    Church and Ministry..................................................[...]128
    Church and Ministry...........................................[...]
    The Ministry of the Church....................................[...].....................165
    Ordination..................................................[...].......... 199

    CONTAINED IN THE DOCUMENTS OF THE UCA.......[...].................... 230

    The 1982 Ordination Statement........................................[...]........ 233

    Baptism. Eucharist & Ministry. 1982 ....................................................... 238

    The 1991 Report on Ministry..................................................[...]............ 246

    The 1994 Report: Ordination & Ministry In the UCA..............................259[...]......................................273

    7. A MINISTRY OF MUTUAL RECOGNITION............................[...]..............................297

    Ordination in the History of the Church.....................................................299

    Ordination in the Heritages of the UCA...............[...]
    [...]ristian Movement

    BEM Bantism. Eucharist and Ministry

    CE Christian Endeavour

    COPEC Co[...]
    [...]Commission on Church Union, 1963

    1982 Ordination Statement Ordination: a Statement for Study and Comment. 1982

    1991 Report Report on Ministry in the Uniting Church In Australia. 1991

    1994 Report Ordination & Ministry In the Uniting Church In Australia: Report[...]
    [...]CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION: MINISTRY AND ORDINATION IN THE UNITING CHURCH IN[...]ch In Australia (UCA) has questions of polity and ministry as a

    result of the various traditions which have[...]ating in a discussion of the various documents on ministry and

    Ordination which have been produced. I will then offer a con[...]for mission In Its formulation of a

    theology of ministry. I will begin with a brief history of the[...]
    [...]of the UCA, confusion reigned as to the nature of ministry and

    the meaning of Ordination. This confusion resulted from the loss of familia[...]and social workers and a
    rediscovery of the ministry of the laity.5

    Consequently, three years after u[...]CA to 'give first priority to matters relating to ministry',

    including the ministry of the whole people of God, the specific ministri[...]1982 Assembly of the UCA approved a statement on Ordination and ministry-

    a series of questions and answers—as a[...]
    [...]f Reformed Churches’.6

    The document dealt with Ordination to Minister of the Word only, the Doctrine

    Commi[...]ctrine Commission. His study book Ordained to the Ministry of the Word did not

    appear until 1987.

    In July 1982, the document Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry (BEM1. prepared by

    the Faith & Order Commission[...]site Is basic agreement on Baptism, Eucharist and ministry. The document

    provided those In the UCA committe[...]& O a new impetus to work

    towards a consensus on ministry and the Sacraments, and the possibility of furthe[...]ints of

    disagreement about the Importance of the ministry of the whole people of God, the

    ordained ministry as constitutive of the life and witness of the Church, the nature of the

    authority of Ordination, the ordering of ministry Into bishop, presbyter and deacon, and

    the histo[...]ponse of the UCA to the document In respect of ‘Ministry* shows a
    strongly positive acceptance In g[...]es our church In the Issue of
    ordering the ministry of the Church and then In the Issue of continuati[...]ostolic succession.7

    The three-fold order of ministry proposed by BEM gave rise to renewed discussions[...]d to establish a renewed

    diaconate, known as the Ministry of Deacon, as defined In the Doctrine Comm[...]
    [...]uch wider thinking of the UCA's understanding of

    ministry and mission than Just a renewed diaconate. Report[...]ge for a study of the changing
    patterns of ministry and what Is and will be required to equip the whole people
    of God for their ministry and mission In a changing world. In the light of[...]some synods,
    * the possibility of ordination to the Ministry of the Word with
    diverse commiss[...]* the Commission on Doctrine’s study of ordination,
    * the Commis[...]4

    Whereas previous theological statements on ministry had been assigned to the

    Doctrine Commission, th[...]draft

    report and discussion paper, A Vision for Ministry in Australia, issued In October

    1991.15 The resu[...]d to the 1991 Assembly In the document Report on

    Ministry In the Uniting Church In Australia (1991 R[...]

    carried out In this time and place. Gifts for ministry were gracious gifts of God to the

    whole people o[...]the Church.

    ...In too marry congregations ministry is still Identified with what the Minister of[...]oup recommended several new or renewed models for ministry for the

    changing needs of the Australian context[...]s to be ordained. It was recommended there be one Ordination to the ordained

    ministry of Christ’s Church, those so ordained accredited to the ministry of deacon or

    minister of the Word. A role of Com[...]ing, to be ordained and accredited either to the

    Ministry of the Word or the Ministry of Deacon. A Committee on Ministries,

    [...]equate account of the

    ecumenical writings on the ministry of Christ, the Intent of the Basis of Union, and[...]ries of Christian
    unity, as we did with the ordination of women. Ecumenical commitment
    certainly m[...]1991 Assembly, realizing flexibility In forms of ministry was Impeded by conformity

    to BEM understandings,[...]conformity to BEM. citing the UCA decision on the Ordination of women as a precedent.

    There was Immediate[...]Assembly on the relationship between Baptism and Ordination,

    the Doctrine Commission prepared and presented, through its own Task Group, a new

    Report on Ordination and Ministry to the 1994 Assembly, Ordination and Ministry In

    the Uniting Church in Australia: a Rep[...]
    [...]ically unsound,' outlining instead a

    theology of ministry which would be more acceptable to the direction o[...]iately some of

    the 1991 Assembly decisions about Ordination, notably returning to two Ordinations,

    one to mi[...]al implications of the
    recommendations for ministry adopted by the Assembly.

    The 1994 Report further[...]of these resolutions posed to an understanding of ministry which is both
    theologically coherent within[...]gical problems’ included:

    * the form of Ordination by ‘one Ordination and two accreditations'

    * the nature of the Ministry of the Word and the Ministry of Deacon: how,

    precisely, are they dis[...]Ministers be ordained was voted instead as a lay ministry.
    [...]traditions informing the UCA’s understanding of ministry and

    Ordination. The initial six chapters of this dissertation wi[...]ntifying

    the players, theologies and polities of ministry which have influenced the UCA thus far.

    and the[...]tralia

    (d) Barth's theology of Church and ministry, and the ecumenical movement,

    both wo[...]CA towards union and the documents

    on ministry and Ordination which have been produced.

    The purpose of the[...]ation proposal:

    I hope that your work on ordination goes ahead full steam. As you will know
    fro[...]2 will describe John Calvin's theology of Church, ministry and Ordination,

    and how his understanding informed Sixteenth an[...]3 will examine John Wesley's theology of Church, ministry, and

    Ordination, and his influence on the Methodist Moveme[...]
    [...]ill examine Karl Barth’s theology of Church and ministry, and his

    influence on the ecumenical movement, b[...]pter 6 will trace the UCA documents and debate on ministry and Ordination

    since the change of 1957, identifying and[...]
    4. Ordination: a Statement for Study and Comment, produced by t[...]Doctrine, and approved by the 1982 Assembly 11982 Ordination


    5. Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. Faith and Order Paper No. Ill, World Council of

    Churches, Geneva, 1982. (BEM1.31

    6. Ministry In the Uniting Church In Australia. Report of the Task Group on Ministry of

    the Church to the Sixth Assembly, Uniting Church in Australia, 1991. f!991 Report).

    7. Ordination and Ministry In the Uniting Church In Australia: a Report from[...]iscussion. I will argue that the major debate on

    ministry and Ordination is between the desire of some In prominent UCA po[...]isible Eucharistic unity and an

    understanding of ministry and Ordination compatible with the major ecumenical

    partners In[...]the UCA to a contextual approach to new forms of

    ministry. I will outline significant Influences on the dec[...]ions about the future

    place and understanding of Ordination to the UCA.
    [...], 1979).

    6 Douglas Miller, Ordained to the Ministry of the Word (Melbourne: Uniting
    Church Press, 197[...]airs, Proposed Response to Baptism. Eucharist
    and Ministry Document. Fourth UCA Assembly Reports. 1985, C 6a[...]ther work would need to be done* on the nature of ministry and
    Ordination. Commission on Doctrine. “The Dlaconate." In Mi[...]ls revolved around whether the
    different forms of ministry should be ordained Le. what was the relationship between a
    new ministry and the minister of the Word.

    14 Minutes.[...]CA. 1988. 88. 27. 5.

    15 Task Group on the Ministry of the Church, A Vision for Ministry In Australia
    (Sydney: Assembly UCA, 1991).

    16 Task Group on Ministry of the Church, Ministry In the Uniting Church In
    Australia: Report of the Task Group on Ministry of the Church to the Sixth Assembly.
    [...]these groups.

    23 Commission on Doctrine. Ordination and Ministry in the Uniting Church: a
    Report from the Assembly[...]. 1963).

    30 Assembly Commission on Doctrine, Ordination: a Statement for Study and
    Comment (Melbourne: Un[...]World Council of Churches, Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. Faith and
    Order Paper No. 111 (Geneva: WCC, 1982).

    32 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 7.
    [...]undaries. Naming this ‘principle of order1 the

    ordination of God, OrdinatioDel, allowed Calvin to es[...]
    [...]ors and magistrates thus fill offices of God’s

    ordination, with divine authority to act as God’s v[...]
    [...]n says:

    If it [the congregation! has the ministry of the Word and honors it. If It has the[...]
    [...]dally advancing and Is not yet perfect. 62

    The Ministry of the Word

    Calvin uses the term 'Ministry of the Word’ In different ways In his writings.[...]f God’s communication of Christ to us as Gospel ministry.

    The end of the Gospel ministry Is that God, the fountain of all felicity,[...]
    [...]on with Christ, uses the Church to facilitate the Ministry of the Word, this treasure.'

    The Church ministers to the elect, nurturing them like a mother.64

    3. This Ministry of the Word, facilitated by the Spirit and locate[...]inely prescribed order for the execution

    of this Ministry of the Word given to the Church.

    This much[...]ace of another. 68

    How functions within this one Ministry of the Word are distributed is less significant[...]lf, but Calvin Identifies three Junctions for the Ministry of the

    Word in the early Church: (a) preaching a[...]d the distribution of alms.69 Church government

    (ministry) must Include these functions.

    Calvin's ordering of how this Ministry of the Word be accomplished must be seen I[...]
    [...]How were these three functions of government (Ministry of the Word) to be assigned

    In Calvin's Church?[...]ng God's order.84

    Within this ordering, the Ministry of the Word includes the Junctions of prea[...]
    [...]e doctrine and also Instructs those preparing for Ministry; but there are also doctors

    who are responsible[...]stor and teacher as those offices engaged in the

    Ministry of the Word.' his more specific definition of Min[...]all Interchangeable for those who carry out this

    Ministry of the Word In the Church. Since Calvin defines t[...]l

    principle of Presbyterian polity, one order of Ministry of the Word, ‘bishop’ and

    [...]words of the Gospel promise, thus are part of the Ministry of the

    Word. Our sins are continually forgiven[...]hese mouthpieces was because of the office of the Ministry of the

    Word entrusted to them. They broug[...]
    [...]is by the results.113

    Hearing the Word

    The Ministry of the Word is not just preaching the Word[...]
    [...]Supper Is a function of the ecclesiastical
    ministry. For Christ did not command women, or men[...]

    Calling, Authorization, and Ordination

    Again. Calvin's concern is order. Individual[...]desire to build up

    the Church is pure, and such ministry is chosen and approved by God.130 The Church

    can[...]xternal calling should be properly symbolized by

    Ordination, the congregation affirming its discernment of gi[...]to the Church. 136

    While Calvin's rationale for Ordination, with the laying on of hands, is congregational

    recognition of gifts for ministry, there is an ambivalence about a 'Sacramental'

    dimension of Ordination.137 On the one hand. Calvin rejects the idea that[...]'hands' symbol as a sign to the people that this

    ministry is commended, and to the ordinand that the[...]

    In Justifying Ordination by laying on of hands as a useful symbol, Calvin[...]incidents where "hands’ were used not just for Ordination.140 He sees

    precedents In the setting apart and[...]bishop of Rome. He also

    decries the practice of Ordination without call to a particular place to exercise pastoral

    office.144 For Calvin,

    ...the proper ordination of a presbyter Is a call to govern the church: of[...]ause of abuse with a Sacramental understanding of Ordination, Calvin's

    Ecclesiastical Ordinances advised that[...]the ministers denoting the
    office to which ordination is being made: then that prayers and petit[...]
    [...]hority belongs to the Word, therefore neither the Ministry of the Word nor

    Church Councils can add,[...]
    [...]Reform was a return to the primacy of the

    Parish ministry, the Word preached, the Sacraments duly administe[...]ch was abolished in favor of Parishes. The Parish ministry was structured with

    ministers, those qual[...]
    [...]with later presbyterian theories of parity. New

    ministry was largely recruited from existing clergy[...]
    [...], and the visible Church to which Christ gave the ministry, oracles, and

    ordinances of God for the g[...]
    [...]edification, and works of charity.192

    As for ministry and Church government, the Assembly’s diverse m[...]priority for

    the preaching, pastoring, teaching ministry within the Church; a plurality of rulers,[...]
    [...]Christ, and as the Spirit In the Church. So this ministry of

    the Word might occur, God gave the Chu[...]
    [...]craments was the role of the pastor. However, the Ministry of the Word included both

    preaching and hearing,[...]on the basis of

    gifts given by God for the task. Ordination, done by laying on of hands, was public

    affirmat[...]the ordinand, and its

    commissioning to the task. Ordination was not a Sacrament. There was one order of

    ministry, not a threefold order.

    Calvinism informed S[...]a presbyterian parity of ministers, one order

    of ministry without bishops. Calvinist theology in Eng[...]
    [...]ohn Calvin, “Summary of Doctrine concerning the Ministry of the Word and
    Sacraments," In Calvin: Theologic[...]9 Ibid., 4. 8. 7-8.

    80 Calvin equates the Ministry of the Word with government, ‘the order[...]
    [...]functions belonged initially to the one order of
    ministry, Calvin describes the gradual change-first[...]
    [...]n on the Church, paid whether
    idle or not; and so Ordination did not become promotion to an honor, but rather[...]aft Ecclesiastical Ordinances," 60-1. Calvin says Ordination
    cannot be a Sacrament because it is not for all t[...]r says Calvin's vacillation elevates the pastoral ministry by default.
    Must we not say that by permitting us to think of ordination as a sacrament he
    has enhanced the authority of the ministry and shored up the institutional
    aspect of the church? Whereas in his sacramental view of the ministry Calvin
    allocates all their authority to t[...]ch they are servants, in the
    sacrament of ordination something of the authority is restored to[...]
    [...]173 ibid., 49. Priests received a Bible at Ordination, not a paten and chalice.

    174 Ibi[...]
    [...]The History of Wesley’s Ministry.15

    Wesley studied at Oxford, and was ordain[...]sing discipline for parishioners.19 When both his ministry and romance In

    Georgia failed, he returne[...]
    [...]ompared his call with Paul, and also with Jesus*

    ministry, his ‘extraordinary* Parish the world.23[...]
    on the ordinances of God Including public worship, Ministry of the Word, the Supper,

    family and priva[...]
    [...]received his "extraordinary call* without special Ordination or episcopal

    commissioning, he did not se[...]
    [...]l order along with the validity of other types of ministry,
    and even In theory to accept the pr[...]
    [...]the church till I
    either am deposed from my ministry or voluntarily renounce her, and wholly[...]
    [...]e 67

    A self-consistent doctrine of Christian ministry from Wesley’s writings Is difficult

    [...]priest to administer Sacraments was conferred at Ordination by a

    bishop who in turn had been ordained by the[...]lic succession. Wesley initially believed that an Ordination not performed by a

    bishop in apostolic successio[...]ed his convictions about the sacerdotal nature of Ordination.

    His 1736 reading of William Beveridge's Svnodik[...]uthority from his double call: the ordinary, his

    Ordination as a priest, and the extraordinary, his awareness of his ‘special mission,*

    and his Ordination as a Fellow of Lincoln College which gave[...]
    [...]gh Church to allow only a deacon ordained to the

    Ministry of the Word to expound Scripture,77 thus maintain[...]for general evangelism like deacons but

    without Ordination.80 In defending this move. Wesley claimed a lack[...]and Calvin were lay, and In Protestant

    Churches. Ordination was not necessary for preaching. The test was the fruits.81

    Wesley’s belief In three orders of ministry was short-lived. In 1746, he read Lord

    [...]By 1755 Wesley had settled for only two orders of ministry, not three or one.

    The higher order, subdivided[...]ar

    vehicle of Sacramental grace acquired through Ordination. However, In 1753, he

    condemned Trent’s formulation as unscrlptural, that of Ordination as a Sacrament

    bestowing Indelible charac[...]
    [...]pirit for every Christian and thus the community. Ordination as Sacrament, with

    divine grace necessarily conferred by or even during Ordination as an 'Indelible

    character.* became the conferri[...]ivine

    conferment of grace could occur during the Ordination service, but might occur long

    before. Commenting[...]ich I have called them," Wesley says this was not Ordination since God had ordained

    them long before, and ‘[...]laying on of hands a symbol used more widely than Ordination.89

    Wesley's mature thinking about ordination was expressed In his revised Book of

    [...]e Holy Ghost." 90

    As for the second order of ministry, that of deacon, Wesley identified the Scriptural[...]also retained the order of'deacon' as a step

    in Ordination like the Church of England, but moved quickly to full Ordination as elder,

    knowing this order of 'deacon' had lit[...]n

    the Scriptures.

    Church and Ministry after the Death of John Weslev91[...]
    [...]ll who are called by him to the
    work of the is a power inherent in themselves as ministe[...]‘pastoral office.’ Rather, the conception

    of ministry was Wesley’s “Rules of a Helper or Assistant." The 1793 Conference had

    discarded many outward marks of ministry. Ordinationministry,’ though not theological.

    had meaning and powe[...]ll who are by Him called to the
    work of the ministry-Acts 20:28,1 Thess 5:12,13, 1 Tim 5:17-19.[...]
    [...]the ordinances of the Church to his people. This Ordination, by whatever

    outward means it is bestowed, was t[...]ouraged them to be different from the vain world. Ministry was to be pure in

    doctrine. Candidates for ministry were examined by the District Meeting on ‘knowl[...]er as pastor. There was no imposition of hands in Ordination, reception into

    Full Connexion being Virtual ordination.’ Each candidate pledged to "preach our[...]
    [...]ain powers are inseparable from the duties of the ministry and cannot
    be transferred, or put In[...]
    [...]es provide for the perpetuation of the ministry, by encouraging those how may
    give eviden[...]of the Pastoral Office and Its high

    doctrine of ministry. Wesleyan Methodism's biggest upheaval cam[...]

    interpretation.’114 The reformers’ view of ministry gave Churches the right to govern

    themselves, ad[...]with power of veto. They believed in a

    separated ministry supported by the people, but entire separa[...]
    [...]e Anglican form since Methodism lacked episcopal

    Ordination and had discarded a threefold order. On th[...]
    conception of ministry so confidently proclaimed after 1828, and coming[...]Church officers, not even deacons.

    The pastoral ministry was the occupation of the *whole man.’ Given this separated

    order, it was God’s ordination that ministers be supported by those *to whose se[...]24 Within this separated order were

    two types of ministry, ordinary and the extra-ordinary. Priests[...]
    [...]e. Called by God and approved by those already In ministry, a minister

    feeds and rules the Church,[...]
    [...]se offending conscience or contrary to Scripture. Ordination

    ...Is neither ‘a sacrament conveying gra[...]Like Rome said. If a church was deprived of its ministry, It would cease to exist.

    The Office of[...]
    [...]on Scripture, not tradition, and called Methodist Ordination, ministry and

    Sacraments invalid because they were without[...]in England, people reacted against an autocratic ministry of

    people drawn from their own social str[...]
    [...]0, wanting no established Church or professional

    ministry, but primitive Church practice. The First[...]

    Wesley’s understanding of Church and ministry changed during his life, from a rigid

    adherence to the Church of England institution with its threefold ministry, to a more

    charismatic community in missi[...]
    [...]nd outside tire Church yet not ordain them, since Ordination affirmed a different

    role, the administration of the Sacraments. Ordination was conferred by the bishop,

    who in turn had bee[...]rrupted succession through

    bishops necessary for Ordination, and also the threefold ministry, claiming a twofold

    ministry of presbyters and bishops as the same order but with different functions, and

    an order of deacon. Ordination was the Church’s acknowledgment of the divine ca11-

    God’s ordination—with the laying on of hands a symbol of commiss[...]as a presbyter-bishop.

    After Wesley's death. Ordination of preachers was continued and Methodism

    became[...]ated order, divinely ordained,

    with two types of ministry—the ordinary minister in the local setti[...]
    [...]lbert Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the Christian Ministry: the Sources
    and Development of his Opinio[...]
    [...]her Church,' Wesley still her ‘son,’ with the Ordination vow
    ..receding from her as little as poss[...]clergy, and
    being ready to submit to her ordination, if any of the bishops will confer it upon[...]rity; Brown-Lawson, John Weslev
    and the Christian Ministry; Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the Anglican Evang[...]rown-Lawson, John Wesley and
    the Christian Ministry. 13.

    20 Wesley's estimation of his[...]
    [...]y'. Lawson,
    John Weslev and the Christian Ministry. 148-55.

    39 Wesley had long been[...]
    [...]land: Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the Christian Ministry.

    ®®Brown-Lawson notes that concepts of ministry held by Methodists from the
    death of Wesley to th[...]72 Lawson, John Weslev and the Christian Ministry. 42.
    [...]unto. Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the Christian Ministry.
    21. See also Baker. John Weslev and th[...]murder than administer the Lord's Supper without
    Ordination. Baker. John Weslev and the Church of England. 25[...]urch. Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the Christian Ministry. 42.

    83 Baker, John Weslev and the[...]
    [...]88 Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the Christian Ministry. 80-81. See also
    Baker, John Weslev and the Churc[...]lingfleet also had also convinced him that, while
    Ordination was needed to administer the Sacraments, it did not have to be episcopal
    Ordination to make the Sacraments valid.

    89 Some sc[...]thou authority to preach the gospd." This Virtual Ordination theory1 says preachers
    were not Just appointed to[...]parate, he was well aware what
    any suggestions of Ordination would Imply. Brown-Lawson, John Weslev and the
    Christian Ministry. 110-12.

    90 Baker, John Weslev and the Ch[...]Bowmer, Pastor and
    People: a Study of Church and Ministry inWeslevan Methodism fromlhe Death of John
    Weslev[...], however. ‘Rev.’ crept back In, and In 1836, Ordination by
    the laying on of hands was adopted by t[...]
    [...]mproved preparation of candidates for the
    ministry belong exclusively to the ministry already existing. St. Paul’s
    Epistles t[...]They who are
    already In the office of the ministry are to commit the deposit to 'faithful men[...]
    [...]gaining local influence and respect
    around their ministry with attached admirers.' Appointments late[...]
    [...]te officers of a church, generated by a Christian ministry, can
    exist no longer than the ministerial f[...]137Ibld„ 222-23. For this reason, only the ministry could judge ministry as
    peers, since to be Judged by those ‘u[...]
    [...]to form the Salvation Army without Sacraments or Ordination. Ibid., 154-6.

    1431 have used as th[...]
    [...]blish an Australian college

    for training a local ministry.12 Presbyterian history in the other Austr[...]
    [...]itions In mining areas, presented challenges for

    ministry never envisaged. Hie normal activities of life—[...]l Hall was needed to supply pulpits and develop a ministry style adapted to

    the needs of Colonists,[...]
    Church and Ministry 19

    The understanding of Church and ministry in the Presbyterian Church in Australia

    followed[...]ourished byWord and

    Sacraments in the Church for ministry, all part of the royal priesthood of believers.

    Into this service or ministry they are initiated at baptism and commissioned[...]d its

    appointed teachers test the ‘call to the ministry,’ but Ordination occurs only with final

    confirmation from a congr[...]feature of Presbyterianism, and

    offers a way the ministry of the whole people of God can find expression in areas wider

    than that of the Ministry of Word and Sacraments. Government of the[...]
    [...]o the Calvinist

    emphases. An early candidate for ministry wrote of his Calvinist-style preaching:[...]

    Church and Ministry

    The document which accompanied the Sa[...]
    [...]ith the gifts and graces appropriate to

    ordained ministry are called to exercise their ministry In Word and Sacraments,

    Ordination taking place after the Inward call has been teste[...]onal polity,

    there Is no ranking In the ordained ministry such as deacon, priest and bishop.
    [...]m. While
    believing an educated and ordained ministry essential, they have always
    Insisted on the mutuality of ministry and the Importance of lay participation.
    In[...]al position serving the role of ‘bishop’ In a ministry of


    Kiek’s 1950 evaluati[...]
    [...]5 for all sessions except those dealing with

    the ministry. This encouraged lay leader involvement, b[...]
    [...]to many congregations. Because

    the only route to ministry was through their ranks, the local preachers prov[...]y the laying on of hands, Methodists believed the Ordination by God

    was sufficient warrant for someone[...]
    [...]oundation of Christian faith and practice." Their ministry was

    voluntary and unpaid. They did not en[...]

    Australian cities needed a different type of ministry from the Circuit. George Taylor was

    appointed an[...]1914 War, it was the established method for urban ministry.

    Church and Ministry

    Initially, membership In the Methodis[...]
    [...]in Australia, deciding Issues of law, policy and ministry. 56

    Inter-denominational[...]resented the erosion of their exclusive right of ministry, Methodists

    accused the low Church Anglic[...]

    Creating viable congregations and ministry for a mobile population whose first
    priorit[...]gs, Imparting a pragmatic character to Australian ministry which has
    deeply affected all the Pr[...]
    [...]hodist and connexlonal In their

    understanding of ministry. While a 1914 revision allowed further concession[...]anding of elders, ordained and taking part In the Ordination and trial of

    ministers, was lost, more au[...]
    [...]union, since debates had

    previously stalled over ministry and Ordination.85 Current sectarian feelings gave

    [...]t to their Courts in 1954. Their understanding of ministry

    included affirmation of the priesthood of all believers; an ordained ministry of both male

    and female persons: equal re[...]
    [...]d Presbyterians refused anything sounding like re-ordination.

    Even though the Presbyterian Assembly vo[...]

    think Anglicans would change their stance on ministry and Ordination." While the

    Lambeth Bishops had re-worded the Quadrilateral to read

    A ministry acknowledged in every part of the Church as posse[...]episcopate was the only means of providing such a ministry. The

    third part of the Quadrilateral was now linked with the Sacraments and episcopal

    Ordination, and the Lambeth Conference refused inter-communi[...]nated again in the Lambeth Conference, episcopal

    Ordination was declared to be a 'conditio sine qua no[...]
    [...]g year. Kick. Our First Hundred Years. 101. Other
    Ordination as the first woman, E.S. Kick says that, while Congregationalism allowed
    women to enter the ministry, in practice women ministers encountered a[...]
    [...]Strand. 31.

    49 For an account of Orton's ministry, see Tyrrell, A Spirit of Benevolence.[...]
    [...]Dutney, "The
    Development of the Understanding of Ministry in the Australian Church Union
    [...]utney. “The Development of the Understanding of Ministry,"
    11-12. Wright & Clancy credit the move[...]
    “The Development of the Understanding of Ministry," 37.

    84 Uldam, Union and Renewal. 35.[...]Dutney, "The Development of the Understanding of Ministry." 390.
    [...]ominations. Each denomination would, In
    their own Ordination form, give Its commission to ministers of the oth[...]s If It questioned the validity of their forms of
    ministry. Dudley, “The Development of the Understanding of Ministry,* 390. Jean
    Marc Ela says the tragedy with forms[...]).

    98 Dutney, “The Understanding of the Ministry of the Church," 24.

    99 The Anglic[...]
    [...]discussions, tried to word the Basis of Union on ministry and
    Ordination to allow future Anglican dialogue. Accusations ma[...]cceptable anyway to Anglicans as containing valid

    103 Ibid., 27.
    authority and teaching office and ministry, in which in some sense it flows over[...]
    [...]inst us?*30

    The Ministry of the Church

    According to Barth's doctrine[...]g in the office and commission

    of the community, ministry (proclamation).33 The commission to witness is no[...]of His whole community.35

    Proclamation is a ministry of witness and service to the Word and reconcilin[...]ms

    when God chooses. Despite human weakness, the ministry is sustained by God’s

    promise that this ministry is fulfilled in Jesus Christ. The essential nature of the

    ministry is the declaration of the Gospel, its explanation[...]he situation of those addressed; the forms of the ministry are multiple.

    The many members of the community are all called by the Spirit to special forms of

    ministry and endowed for them by grace. But God’s[...]
    [...]m 12: 6, 1 Cor 12: 8, Eph 4: 11), he regarded the Ministry of the Word as the

    primary role of the whole body. Speech forms of ministry (proclamation) Include praise

    of God. proclamati[...]Christian lands, and

    theology.37 Action forms of ministry are prayer, cure of souls, Christian living, reli[...]and classes.

    Barth Insists that each form of ministry Is laid upon the whole community, the


    with God’s intervention; one form of ministry cannot

    ...break loose and swallow the others, finally making itself out to be the
    one ministry, or the one fellowship of ministry, and acting as such.39

    Barth never modifi[...]


    For Barth, Baptism is the first step for a l[...]mmand

    at Baptism is from Matt 28, to take up the ministry.59 Thus a person does not just

    become a m[...]
    Further, Barth calls Baptism a ‘consecration or Ordination* to take part In the mission

    committed to the wh[...]superfluous and Indeed forbids the consecration, ordination or
    dedication which customarily relates to[...], consecrated, ordained or
    dedicated to the ministry of the Church. They cannot be consecrated, ordain[...]r (and not Just In the Roman Catholic world!) 61

    Ordination therefore, If observed. Is merely a reference to[...]assembly a person for exercising any particular ministry

    ...receives Its effectiveness from the call of God. Therefore, ordination is not
    an act of ecclesiastical Jurisdictio[...]eceive the Word of God as expressed
    through ordination, but the received Word must be received always afresh In
    his ministry.62

    Barth and th[...]
    [...]ces between Churches In regard to

    the Church and ministry. Networking between these groups exchanged[...]
    [...]n all places and all ages In such wise that
    ministry and members are accepted by all, and that[...]
    [...]rld the solidarity of all Christians.

    4. The ministry of all. Barth's Idea of the whole community as apostolic Introduced

    a new understanding of ministry. For Calvin, believers were held together In one body

    by ‘the ministry of men* who governed the Church, in succession from the apostles (Eph

    4:4-16).81 Barth saw ministry (proclamation) belonging to the whole peop[...]
    [...]nd discipline In the life of the

    Church; and the ministry of the Church, to be agreed upon before de[...]
    [...]hes, requiring

    consensus on the understanding of ministry and Ordination. Cultural-social unity is

    practical, movi[...]
    [...]However, this search for visibility, expressed in ministry and Sacramental

    unity, ignored obvious di[...]
    [...]his was the assumption of Baptism.

    Eucharist and Ministry fBEMl. a 1982 product of F & O. The result[...]
    [...]lic-Orthodox dialogue over

    issues of the Petrine Ministry and conflicting claims of a "true universal Churc[...]ie in the whole Church, not in continuity through Ordination.

    Succession is subordinate to apostolic c[...]
    [...]ed differing understandings of the Sacraments and ministry,

    especially between episcopal and non-eplscopal[...]essity also Involved a move towards uniformity In ministry and Sacraments. The

    suggestion of bishops[...]
    [...]called for clarification of Its understanding of Ordination, the Doctrine

    Commission producing the 1982 Stat[...]UCA’s understanding In a Reformed doctrine of ministry not clearly expressed In the

    Basis of Uni[...]
    [...]ugh UCA links with F

    & O. The UCA 1991 Report on ministry and Ordination, requested as clarification once

    again on conflicting theologies of ministry, and prepared from responses Church-wide

    rather[...]as the theological context for decision-making on ministry.

    The traditional and contextual theologie[...]
    [...]hurch, and only then an individual Christian. The ministry of the Church is

    proclamation—witness and service to the Word-a ministry given to the whole

    community in its diversity. P[...]the commissioning of all to take part In mission; Ordination is the act of

    setting apart some to parti[...]
    [...]ergence’ of opinions on Baptism. Eucharist and

    ministry, but had little Impact In many circles. The Ortho[...]UCA continually aligned In its

    understanding of ministry with the ecumenical movement. However tensions ex[...]wards Anglo-

    Orthodox-Catholic understandings of ministry and Ordination limiting the ability of the

    UCA to respon[...]
    [...]this one
    gift ‘set apart’ from the others by Ordination? Starkloff, in his attempts to make more
    [...]omiley & Torrance, there is no subject heading ‘Ordination’ nor a sub-heading
    Ordination’ under Ministry (Service).

    62 Barth, La proclamation de l*Evanglle. 40. Barth’s understanding of
    Ordination could apply to any function of the communi[...]
    [...]ministerial order and seek to abolish
    the Ministry as an Institution In the Christian Church. They m[...]only saw the usefulness of having an order of ministry... but they believed in its
    Immense Import[...]4: 11-13, calling for a broader Interpretation of ministry. Soon after, Kraemer’s
    book A Theology of the L[...]In the Inertia which bound Churches to a
    view of ministry exclusively institutional. Kraemer used Eph 4: 11-12 for his argument,
    and determined that
    The ministry of the ordained clergy and the ministry of the laity are both aspects
    of the same[...]143.
    John Collins argues that the changed view of ministry Is based on a changed
    Interpretation of‘dlakonl[...]f Eph 4: 11-13
    deleting a comma after the word ‘ministry,* thus aligning ministry to the saints rather
    than pastors and teac[...]
    [...]Dutney, "The Development of the
    Understanding of Ministryministry with their
    low church' view of bishops and[...]
    [...]; Dutney, The Development of the Understanding of
    Ministry,’’; Dutney, Manifesto for Renewal: Eng[...]
    [...]utney, “The Development of the
    Understanding of Ministry,' 235-7.

    118 McCaughey, “Church[...]
    the nature of the Church (and maybe the ministry) are likely to be a waste of
    [...]aith and Order Commission, Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. F & O Paper
    No.l 11 (Geneva: WCC, 1982) i[...]
    [...]retary. David was Convenor for the 1994 Report on ministry

    and Ordination. Peter Bentley who was also on ACC Executive was[...]-94,
    and Assembly presenter of the 1994 Report on Ordination. He trained under Young,
    and returns from[...]
    CONTAINED IN THE DOCUMENTS OF TH[...]lyze various documents produced with reference to ministry and Ordination during

    the formative union discussions since 195[...]Indicate the lack of a theological consensus on ministry and Ordination, and confusion

    resulting from conflicting argume[...]equently different understandings of how

    God’s ministry and mission Is accomplished In the Church. I have outlined the

    understandings of ministry and Church polity which came through the t[...]
    [...]rches. This challenged Reformed understandings of ministry. Ordination

    and Church government, bringing into a te[...]
    [...]musings of

    A ‘crisis of ministry* had also surfaced, with confusion of role, autho[...]gy and

    lay perceptions, with the emphasis on the ministry of all; and conflicting attitudes to

    social issu[...]and always provides for us In the sacraments and ministry He then
    instituted. Never does He ch[...]

    ministry (proclamation) is worship, witness and service. T[...]g on

    behalf of all humankind—Christ's priestly ministry, the ‘going out* is Christ's prophetic

    and kingly ministry. The whole people of God are entrusted with Christ's ministry

    (proclamation), both word and deed, by virtue of[...]Christ and Church,

    Head and Body. As Christ’s ministry was expressed as servant, so too the Church's life.

    Flexibility demands attending to needs for ministry in the Australian context.

    Sociological changes[...]Church, relativizing all

    forms and structures of ministry to the needs of mission, the 1963 Report then opens

    the next section ‘the Ministry in the Church' thus:

    So that the people of[...]and particular
    ministries within the whole ministry.17

    It introduces the prophet, priest and king mo[...]0-12

    by Calvin and others to justify an order of ministry continuous from the Hebrew Bible,

    and assigned b[...]eport argue there is no developed doctrine of the ministry, which is true. Instead, the

    drafters offered a[...]he scholarly peril of

    arguing any one pattern of ministry from the New Testament, nor did not give an


    Three such marks of the regulated ministry have well-nigh universal
    [...]o suggest a

    threefold function for the set apart ministry, despite its absence in any of the previous

    deno[...]ople of God from the time of Christ’s incarnate ministry until He comes

    This argument assu[...]n’ to the Twelve In Eph 4:10-

    12 of Christ’s ministry; and a 'continuing ministry or apostolic succession’ from the

    [...]function as an ‘order,* the 1963 Report argues Ordination as

    traditional' with this order, to 'symbolize* continuity and the 'unify' it provides.25

    Ordination by prayer, with the laying on of hands symbolizes the continuity of
    the ministry thus set aside by Christ to responsibility for pr[...]that this 'concern for an ordered and continuous ministry

    did not result In one stereotypical form of Church life.26 The threefold ministry

    developed In East and West around the bishop as[...]ion for perpetuation of this through the rite

    of Ordination by apostolic succession. This eplscope (oversight[...]this distinct office from

    other ministries, with Ordination by prayer and laying on of hands by a bish[...]

    only presbyters In one order of ministry, the 1963 Report calls for bishops and


    Deacons are also needed In a threefold ministry within one order, paralleling the

    traditional' m[...]nd presbyter, with prayer and laying on of hands. Ordination implying a limited

    participation In the one order of Ministry of Word and Sacrament. Thus presbyter,

    The bishop had to be contained In one order of ordained ministry at this point, given the

    Reformed heritage, so w[...]re up with others In the dialogue over orders of

    ministry, and not to put ‘rigid adherence" In the way.33[...]’ to use this fidlness of

    God’s provision of ministry (bishops) In the past.34 The drafters recognized[...]hich would recognize the validity of all

    current ministry, but offer a wider recognition to Australi[...]
    [...]partner Churches, an

    episcopacy and hierarchy of ministry with little lay involvement.

    [...]d challenged traditional

    theology; the crisis In ministry and the gulf between clergy and lay had increased[...]ularization, and decline in social

    status of the ministry; the late Sixties shared the global turmoi[...]
    [...]iation>56 While ‘flexibility’ allows forms of ministry to emerge from contextual

    needs, an ordained ministry associated with Word and Sacrament is ‘given,’ the set

    apart ministry closely linked with the ‘constitutive’ work o[...]n keeping with Church ‘tradition.’57

    The ministry of all by virtue of Baptism and through their gif[...]to these gifts. There is no gift as part of the ministry of Christ without corresponding
    [...]is of Union discusses only 'set apart" gifts for

    ministry In the Church-deacons or ministers of the Word.[...]members to hear and respond to God's call to ministry, and of ordering Its life
    to enter more ful[...]ss a

    distinctive and continuous character of the Ministry of Word and sacrament.60 the

    following was inclu[...]rd.61

    The argument for the ordained order of ministry Is traditional,’ the continuity of a

    role of w[...]rs and their setting apart will be known
    as Ordination.62

    The Basis of Union calls Ordination an act of praise, a recognition of the call of th[...]pirit for continuing equipment of the person for

    ministry.63 Dutney agrees Ordination, while less than a Sacrament, Is being presented[...]ns' as sign and Instrument of God's grace.

    Ordination was being understood as a sign of God’s[...]
    [...]ething more’ by likening this understanding of

    Ordination to the ecumenical statement A Mutually Recognized Ministry.

    The act of ordination is at one and the same time: invocation of the Ho[...]ifts and commitment.' So
    too is the act of ordination in the Uniting Church *by prayer and the laying o[...]g’ the Spirit’s enabling power to fulfill the ministry. In arguing for those whom

    God has already called to ministry laying hands on the ordinand as ‘witness to God[...]enter into that succession.66

    Four types of ministry were recognized: minister of the Word (ord[...]
    [...]to deeper unity. It had

    established one order of ministry, with three functions modeled on episcopal Church[...]sident.75

    The 1982 UCA Ordination Statement76

    Three years later, the Commissio[...]to ‘give first priority to

    matters relating to ministry.’ since confusion existed over the task of the[...]astors, lay presidency at the Sacraments, whether Ordination could be maintained

    with the ministry of all believers,79 and whether ministers can be[...]The

    Doctrine Commission’s 1982 statement 11982 Ordination Statement) became a

    supplement to the Basis of Union as the Church's understanding on Ordination, an

    explanatory study guide published In[...]
    [...]ally ordained. It had not developed a doctrine of ministry, but had referred to

    various motifs prominent In[...]ith the

    clergy crisis and the challenge from the ministry of all, both clergy and laity were

    unsure what ‘authority’ was given at Ordination, and what lines of authority existed.83

    The 1982 Ordination Statement ‘set the UCA position on Ordination firmly within

    the traditions of the Reformed Chu[...]previous traditions, with a reformed doctrine of ministry spelled out.85 Ordination Is

    an Individual ‘lawful calling* of some to t[...]their service In the world.

    Preparation for this ministry is by the call of God, the discipline of the Chur[...]nister Is commissioned by the

    Presbytery through Ordination with prayer and laying on of hands. All other patterns of

    ministry are defined "with reference to* that central ministry role.

    Ordination Is the consecration and Incorporation of a person[...]ies with
    it authorisation to exercise that ministry and a responsibility of committing It to
    others. The ordination prayer signifies the acknowledgment of God[...]
    [...]life, and by the
    individual for his or her ministry. The laying on of hands by those already
    holding this ministry bears public witness to God’s continuing faithf[...]ge and comfort for the carrying out of the
    ministry now entrusted to him or her. 86

    In developing a doctrine of ministry. Miller says the criterion for decision is the be[...]up to
    preach the gospel to the church. 91

    Ordination is the affirmation that a person has gifts for ma[...]pture not Church tradition.93 Miller tempers

    the ministry of all believers through Baptism, distingu[...]
    [...]cide. The Church ‘calls* by affirming gifts for ministry, ensuring proper

    preparation, and appointing peo[...]g factor In becoming a minister of the Word, not

    Ordination. Once established, elders, then Presbytery, consi[...]he Church has already recognized as called to the Ministry of the Word having major

    Input. Ordination Is the final setting aside for the task, public recognition that the

    Church calls them. Ordination Is for life, not because of a ‘charism*[...]
    [...]cal preparation, since this is not an

    'order* of ministry but a standard of learning exhibited through gifts for ministry.98

    The variety of thinking about Ordination in the UCA at this time is reflected in the

    1983[...]nal Papers, which introduced the new statement on Ordination

    inviting UCA theologians to comment. While the F[...]point, the differences still reflect the idea of Ordination as the point

    of entry into an order to perform t[...]ethodists and those in

    the ecumenical arena) and Ordination as the public recognition of the gifts and traini[...]to argue other ordained forms and

    accepting the ministry of all. Ordination a public recognition of gifts for a Church task[...]e acceptance, to a formal act of setting

    apart—Ordination. Since Ordination pertains to qualifications for a task, other

    min[...]c calls

    to an office in the totality of Christ's ministry are thus recognized for life, the call to[...]
    [...]nt kind for those who become candidates for

    In terms of Ordination for life. Breward and Owen could agree that Ordination as

    recognition of gifts for a task did not have[...]aining. Wood claims a theological precedence for

    Ordination-the order of pastor established In Eph 4:1-12: th[...]s of unity and

    continuity—In all, an ofllce of ministry. Wood thus argues against ministers sharing

    look closely at the propositions In Hie Ministry on the act of ordination. While
    our membership In the ACC carries no[...].104

    Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. 1982 fBEMl105

    Into this moment when F & O was weak in Australia and a Reformed

    understanding of Ordination had been reaffirmed came BEM. to

    [...]cumenical agreement about Baptism,

    Eucharist and ministry, even though Churches were not ready to accept an[...]ve of the Church, a Sacramental

    understanding of Ordination, and unity as around the bishop in the Eucharist.[...]hey agreed little was said about the calling

    and ministry of all the people of God-a basic premise of ministry for the UCA—arguing

    this was because of an agreement to concentrate on aspects of ministry that directly or

    indirectly related to problems of mutual recognition.108 BEM states that ministry Is

    constitutive of the Church and ministers are[...]and whom the church appoints for service by
    ordination through the Invocation of the Spirit and t[...]
    [...]uld be 'lnteipreted' to fit a functional role for Ordination. It Is also

    traditional’ language for a Sacramental understanding of Ordination. BEM does not

    mention the Church’s ‘call,’ the distinctive claim for Ordination In the Reformed

    traditions.110 BEM’s authority for Ordination Is the traditions of the Church’ which

    was als[...]fies here different Eccleslologlcal

    meanings for Ordination. According to BEM. the Church needs a 'public* fi[...]ced

    from Christ through the apostles:

    The ministry of such persons, who since the early times have b[...]life and witness of the Church.111

    The ordained ministry reminds the community of dhrlne initiative and It[...]than Christ as constitutive for the UCA. Ordained ministry In BEM Is the

    ...visible focus of the deep[...]to be more considered In our affirmation of
    ordination and our understanding of the apostolic witness to[...]pecially seen In

    the Eucharist with the ordained ministry the focus of communion between Christ and[...]

    It Is high time the UCA develops the ministry of the whole people of God as
    Imaginativel[...]her undermine
    the identity of the ordained ministry. I believe that the fear Is groundless. It
    could free ordained ministry to be enablers and liberators In a way which Is[...]r than
    as representatives of one aspect of ministry.114

    The following BEM paragraph caused ‘un[...]rs it by the Holy Spirit through the
    act of ordination...they (the ordained ministers) manifest and exer[...]n this basis. It says:

    Among these gifts a ministry of eplscope is necessary to express and safeguard
    the unity of the body. Every church needs this ministry of unity In some form
    In order to be the Ch[...]s, teachers and

    those who discipline members for ministry; deacons represent the Church's calling as

    serva[...]n worship, reading, preaching, teaching,

    and the ministry of love-they can also govern. As for the a[...]
    [...]the continuity of the whole Church, but ordained

    ministry has a particular task of 'preserving and actualiz[...]is does not

    diminish the importance of episcopal ministry. The UCA agreed more work had to be

    done on the[...]heir teaching.

    This bond with Christ recalled at Ordination comes from the risen Lord as true ordalner

    (Eph[...]g on of hands the sign of the gift of the Spirit. Ordination

    denotes an action of God and the community, stre[...]e laying on of hands as the power being given at

    Ordination. Although the granting of the Spirit is God’s f[...]lationships and uses them for his purpose.

    Ordination is a sign performed in faith that the spiritual r[...]ts response, this is a ‘Sacramental’ view of

    Ordination. While recognizing various opinions on the permanency of Ordination, BEM

    says Ordination should be for life, thus keeping open the Sacrame[...]for episcopal churches
    to do Justice to the ministry of the whole people of God and recognize this in[...]a thoroughly Christological foundation for ministry is laudable. It must be
    complemented by an account of ministry which is just as thoroughly
    transmit the Ministry of Word and Sacrament In continuity with apostoli[...]formal leadership to make people aware of their ministry.

    To speak of episcopacy as a sign of unity[...]cognize the partnership of men and women In
    ministry Is another barrier to unity. The UCA may h[...]
    [...]possibilities offered

    by a threefold pattern of ministry. The obstacles to episcopacy were concerns about[...]1985 Assembly, arguing for an ordained diaconal

    ministry addressing spheres of ministry not sufficiently addressed in the Ministry of the

    Word. This diaconate would be 'representa[...]ze it and publicly test it; be Tor life' like the Ministry of the Word; and

    provide opportunities for the U[...]y resolved to establish a renewed

    Diaconate, the Ministry of Deacon, and directed the Doctrine Commission t[...]the 1988 Assembly for a non-stipendiary Community Ministry, raising questions about

    this ministry in relation to the ordained Minister of the Word.126 With three proposals

    about ministry, it became obvious there was need to examine changing patterns for

    ministry in some comprehensive way beyond any one C[...]
    ...arrange for a study of the changing patterns of ministry and what Is and will
    be required to equip the whole people of God for their ministry and mission In a
    changing world. In the lig[...]ogress In some synods
    •the possibility of ordination to the Ministry of the Word with diverse
    •the Commission on Doctrine's study on ordination, and
    •the Commission on Mission's study o[...]stablish a research study on changing patterns of ministry. Including the
    ordained ministry, from the basis of the one ministry of Christ;
    b. study past Assembly reports an[...]consult widely with groups Involved In aspects of ministry. Including:
    deaconesses, non-stlpendlary[...]cumenical. International and Third World forms of ministry.
    Including dlaconal and non-stlpendlary ministry;
    e. Investigate distinctive patterns of ministry In Australia;
    f. envision elements In the emerging shape of ministry for the church In the
    next ten years.[...]y Resolution 88, 31, 3(c)
    relating to the ministry of Youth worker, and offer advice to the c[...]
    [...]communities as criteria for

    different models of ministry; ‘traditional’ ordering to be subordinate to[...]ns.132

    The 1991 Report on Ministry 11991 Report)133

    The 1991 Report Identifies[...]God Is grounded In Christ’s finished work whose ministry we share, to

    bring the universe into unity with[...]ove and hope.

    The whole Church shares Christ’s ministry, equipped by gifts of the Spirit conferred In

    Baptism. The fullness of this ministry Is seen In the whole people of God worshipping
    and serving, nourished by Word and Sacrament. The ministry of the people Is not

    identified with Christ’s ministry, but dependent on It. sharing In the ministry of the One

    who constitutes the Church as his bod[...]the world.136 A

    variety of recommendations about Ordination had come from the consultations:

    (a) abolition of ordination and recognition of baptism/confirmatlon as the[...]tment of all to share appropriately In Christ’s ministry;
    (b) one ordination for the ministry of the Word only, with a variety of
    (d) many ordinations:
    (e) one ordination with two accreditations (This Is the option prefe[...]ware that other discussions were In process about Ordination,

    selected the option they felt most productive,[...]Doctrine to

    Investigate UCA’s understanding of Ordination.

    Many see (baptism) as the ’ordination’ of every Christian to share In the mission[...]provides the context for proper understanding of ordination or
    commissioning, because there Is still to[...]hich does not
    appropriately relate ordained ministry and the ministry of the people of God.138

    The renewal of the Dlaconate as an ordained ministry and the need to describe

    other forms of ministry e.g. youth workers, community ministers, i[...]
    [...]rce!' or

    ‘server,’ for the major role of the ministry of all people in the world. While other

    documents affirmed the ministry of all in some degree, the 1991 Report spelled it[...]991 Report- considered the ecumenical writings on ministry as well as the Basis of

    Union and New Testament[...]s of Christian
    unity, as we did with the ordination of women. Ecumenical commitment
    [...]tly what

    the UCA could look like In terms of Its ministry. Listening also Included to "parent*

    heritages,[...]ers already functioned In practice, and dlaconal

    ministry had many overseas and local counterparts. The 199[...]gaps between "haves' and "have nots’ suggested ministry to the unemployed, and also

    opened more[...]
    [...]quired effective worship styles and new models of ministry,

    especially for youth, lower-income people and[...]gether in the world, rather than a unified Church ministry and Sacraments-

    hardly relevant to most Australi[...]d, active in people, yet the

    Church’s style of ministry has distanced Itself from this world. People of G[...]ivities. Gifts are given to facilitate people’s ministry
    [...]aces in their lives where they share in

    Christ's ministry and mission. The Church supports the ministry of Christians in the

    world by setting aside peop[...]lling (their *belng In Christ*) as a vocation for ministry, commissioned by

    Baptism, some at times identifi[...]and training for specialist tasks, as part of its ministry in the world e.g.

    nurses In Church hospitals. Th[...]s characterized by

    (a) a sense of call by God to ministry, affirmed by the Church by gifts, abilities,[...]re to use their gifts thus

    (c) the exercise of a ministry focused on a particular group, need or gift offered

    (d) a period of formation for their ministry
    [...]ccreditation is affirmation of a person's call to ministry In a service of
    worship and recognition tha[...]qualified as part of the particular specified ministry.145

    (0 a sense of colleglallty with others accredited to the same ministry

    (g) an Involvement In a team ministry

    (h) employment with the UCA or Its agency, usual[...]t rejected any status and hierarchy

    conferred at Ordination, seeing the ordained ministry as ‘set apart’—trained, full-time,

    for lif[...]Sacramental relationship to

    Christ or Christ’s ministry than that shared by all In Baptism.

    Those set apart for the ministry of the Word or deacon bear witness to God's[...]new places. That Is why
    we must understand ordination in the Uniting Church as an ordering of ministry
    that points unmistakably to Christ, but Is[...]pirit to
    take new forms. We understand this ordination to be normally for life.147

    Ordination is the agreement by the Church to set apar[...]
    [...]g' should be done, the 1991 Report opted for one

    Ordination with two accreditations:

    * One ordination bears witness to the one ministry of Christ and its normative
    character fo[...]ccreditations integrate the special ministries of ministry of Word and
    deacon, emphasizing that the[...]inistries
    under Christ.
    * Neither ministry is complete without the other, or the other minis[...]indispensable witness to the
    fullness of ministry to which we are called. Without a dlaconal ministry, the
    church can overlook the poor and ne[...]human need of a broken
    world. Without a ministry of the Word, the body of Christ is not nurtured a[...]ature as gathered community.148

    This view of ordination is functional and contextual, coming from the community's

    needs-from below—in direct contrast to Ordination from above,' as the receiving of a

    ‘character*[...]f the truth, through the assignment of a specific ministry

    from Eph 4, or from the 'representational' conti[...]licting 'functional' and ‘Sacramental* views of Ordination, and their various motifs,

    has informed the lang[...]scribes, identifies the conflicting positions on

    Ordination, rejects ‘convergence’ towards the traditional’ view, and opts for a functional

    understanding of Ordination best suited for ministry in the Australian context.

    Having established that Ordination has signified a task needed by the Church, the

    1991 Report argues that the current Ministry of the Word category does not represent

    the fullness of Christ’s ministry, lacking the model of his ministry of service in the

    world, working with the sick a[...]establishment.’

    Understanding 'representative* ministry149 as modeling to the Church the types of

    ministry Jesus did, both teaching and healing, the[...]
    role expands the 'fullness* of Christ’s ministry, and ‘represents* It In a focused and more

    vis[...]y of none.150

    The 1991 Report recommends one Ordination for Christ’s one ministry with

    accreditation as minister of the Word or de[...]ister of the Word.

    The advantages of this single Ordination with two different functions was argued as:

    * recognizing the overlap between the two major foci of ministry

    * regularizing troubling aspects of settlement I[...]he polarization of different functions of the one ministry of Christ, and

    aligning the two strands of ministry found in the New Testament..151

    Word and S[...]sed. Both
    ministries point to and model the ministry of the Word made flesh-Jesus Christ.
    Both p[...]le of God to embody
    more adequately the one ministry of Christ.152

    The Task Group sought further discussion on the understanding of Ordination

    especially In relation to Baptism (the beginning[...]the conflict between

    functional and Sacramental ordination, addressing It, rather than current attemp[...]
    [...]f deacon. Incorporating

    all aspects of a serving ministry including minister of the Word or roles lay peopl[...]hrough a Presbytery.

    Having thus established Ordination as a trained, commissioned, full-time, paid, for[...]many tasks given the people of God In Christ’s ministry,

    the role of minister of the Word was described.[...]lled ministers of the Word are set apart
    by ordination.155

    The statement Is carefully developed. Mi[...]s particular

    task. The authority for a set apart ministry Is the UCA's beliefthat God gives gifts and


    rather than the authority of a ‘given* ministry, a special ‘set apart* order of ministry

    argued from Scripture, particularly Eph 4. It Is[...]k needed which

    comes first, not a divinely given ministry, the need resulting In an act of commissioning

    (Ordination) and a title, minister of the Word. The arguments made for an ordained

    ministry of the Word were:

    * Like ministry of all members, it finds Its source and model in Christ's ministry.

    * Ministers have a tradition which ‘de[...]
    This ministry is for the building up of people in their various[...]lar

    congregational experiences, in new forms of ministry so others might hear as well, a

    missionary dime[...]r.

    A third and related category of ordained ministry was suggested—that of

    community minister—people ordained to exercise ministry in limited settlements,

    including ordained minis[...]stance education to a suitable academic level for Ordination; they would preside at

    the Sacraments; and be pa[...]was not an alternative

    to traditionally ordained ministry, but flexibility to new ministries in unique sett[...]s
    mission. In this environment the church's ministry can respond to the diversity
    of Australian[...]e it,159 and the Diaconate renewed as an ordained ministry.160 A

    specified ministry of youth worker was established and a consultatio[...]ds and

    Presbyteries began to formulate community ministry, broadening the image of ordained

    ministry and catering for multicultural diversity.1[...]
    [...],163 'unease' was

    expressed from some over their Ordination. Consequently the 1992 Standing

    Committee includ[...]ost agreed on the role, disquiet centered on its

    Ordination, frustrating the Committee on Ministries who saw new ways of ministry.166

    The 1991 Report had (ironically) asked t[...]ency at the Sacraments in these new situations of ministry, and to define the

    relationship between Ordination and Baptism as commissioning to ministry.167

    However, the Doctrine Commission represented an understanding of Ordination

    rejected by the 1991 Task Group and thus Jeopard[...]ring a report on the Church’s

    understanding of Ordination as a whole.168 Thus the Doctrine Commission retrieved

    responsibility for decisions about ministry despite the wider Church 1991 Report, and.

    not s[...]eunion.

    The Journal claimed the 1991 decision on Ordination and ministry was

    ...a rejection of the denominat[...]
    Ordination with its emphasis on ministry as service, the dlaconal role absorbing all

    othe[...]logue with other Churches, was disturbed with one Ordination

    and two accreditations, and the automatic right[...]lutions so profoundly affecting our view of
    ministry, and the place of the Uniting Church In th[...]
    Reformed understanding of the ministry as related to the Word, arguing that the

    current fad for equality suggests Ordination Is understood as 'status.'

    If the latter question [who Jesus Christ Is for the church) determines ordination,
    then ordination has nothing to do with status but is the recognit[...]to be present
    with it. Therefore to subvert ordination by the Ideology of equality Is to deny the[...]our unity In Christ alone.176

    The Report on Ministry and Ordination was prepared by the Doctrine Commission

    (1994 Re[...]ted to the July 1994 Assembly, the

    discussion of ministry and Ordination now back In the hands of the Doctrine

    Commission[...]ons for wider Input.

    Ihe-1994-Report: Ordination and Ministry in the Uniting Church178

    The 1994 Report was[...]Its points of concern with the 1991 Report:

    one ordination and two accreditations; how the minister of the W[...]he decision of the Sixth Assembly, viz.,'that one ordination to the
    ordained ministry In Christ's church be recognized, and that[...]
    ordained be accredited to a ministry of deacon or ministry of the Word (Minute
    91.13.5a, Minutes of the Sixth Assembly, 1991):
    (b) Recognize ordination as a setting apart of persons for ministry as ministers of
    the Word or as Deacons, and understand ordination to these two ministries as
    two distinct o[...]the decisions: and that the mandate for reviewing ministry had been given to the

    1991 Task group not the Co[...]tions

    ...have posed to an understanding of ministry which is both theologically
    [...]s aim was to Inform the theological discussion on ministry and

    Ordination in the UCA; to locate the doctrine of Ordination In its “proper theological

    context:* indicate[...]n addressed

    was—“How does the UCA understand Ordination and the two ministries for which

    people are set apart by Ordination?" Its theological ‘context* included previous U[...]nt.189 However,

    what the 1994 Report did was set Ordination firmly back In the ecumenical dialogue on

    faith and unity with language about Ordination acceptable to that dialogue.

    The 1994 Report[...]identifying a continuity of the understanding of Ordination as a ‘distinctive and

    essential ministry,' set apart, different from every members’ ministry, a commissioning,

    consecrating, authorizing, and[...]he 1994 Report

    summarizes BEM's understanding of Ordination. While acknowledging the ministry of

    the whole people of God. BEM stresses an ordained ministry is necessary for the

    Church to fulfill its missi[...]rdained ministers derives from Jesus

    Christ, and Ordination confers this authority. Ordination, while an act of the Church,

    has its true agent[...]name of the triune God not on its own authority. Ordination beginning with the

    invocation of the Holy Spirit[...]en minister

    and the Church, local and universal. Ordination is also a ‘sign* that the Lord provides

    the Church with this ministry. It is an acknowledgment by the Church tha[...]
    [...]t* with BEM. noting its sparse discussion of the

    ministry of all and the idea that ordained ministry is ‘constitutive* of the life and witness

    of t[...]he process and direction of the Lima Statement on ministry.192

    The Report then claims that the context of BEM necessarily *11111118* UCA's

    understanding of Ordination.

    Therefore, as the Uniting Church seeks to discern the gospel challenge to
    reform its ministry, it is not at liberty to create its own forms of ministry
    without reference to other churches.193[...]tifies a “language problem.* The concept of the ministry of all

    has clouded the term “minister,' and si[...]The Commission hopes that this statement on ordination will serve to promote
    a theologicall[...]
    [...]similar ring.

    The theological arguments for ministry and Ordination are claimed to be

    Trinitarian. * Agreeing that a biblical pattern for ministry is no longer arguable, the

    1994 Report argues a[...]e, forgiveness and renewal which comprise God’s ministry

    of salvation In Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. In arguing for a Trinitarian theology of

    ministry, the 1994 Report rejects as inadequate both Christological (ministry as Christ's

    command and example, or the Prophet.[...]it (the

    language of BEM1

    The Lima text on Ministry is clearly Trinitarian In Its descriptions of the
    church's ministry, based upon the victory and forgiveness of Christ[...]this insight does not negate an understanding of ministry based on the Word, but

    shows 'how the ministry of the Word of God might be expressed within a tr[...]ian approach sees the triune God as source of all ministry;

    Jesus Christ being sent from God and returning[...]d.

    The 1994 Report talks of two horizons for ministry: the ultimate which is the

    Ministry of the Triune God, and the intermediate, the ministry of the Church. In the

    ultimate horizon of God's ministry. God’s very nature is 'apostolic,' God t[...]
    [...]ing and gathering, Is the model for the ordained

    ministry, the ‘apostolic roles of sending and gathering' In the Intermediate horizon for

    ministry, the Church.200 The 1994 Report mentions the corp[...]port was asked to distinguish between baptism and Ordination.

    Baptism Is the sign of Initiation Into this com[...]y of the triune God, which commissions us for the ministry of all believers

    through entry Into Christ's lif[...]God In the world.*

    According to the 1994 Report. Ordination and Baptism are both commlsslonlngs—one

    specif[...]ssion* of the general commission In Baptism. Thus Ordination can

    never be set over against Baptism since Ordination assumes Baptism, representing a

    particular focus of the Baptismal call. The Church calls certain people to ministry as

    presbyters and deacons, setting them apart for that ministry for life from other

    responsibilities in Church or world. Ordination therefore, Is the 'act' or "rite' of

    commissioni[...]lemnly and thankfully sets

    them apart for such a ministry.204

    At this point, the description Is[...]
    [...]endiaiied, full-time, for life.’ Thus Christian ministry is

    firstly God’s ministry in the world; also the ministry of the Church community; also the

    ministry of each baptized person, with Ordination simply a further commissioning of

    some to work within the church "focusing’ this ministry of all in ‘praise.’205 However,

    the 1994 Rep[...]ggesting more than a functional understanding of

    ministry. The 1994 Report now make a move in gradual steps[...]participate in these to some extent, the ordained ministry—presbyter and

    deacon-brings, by Ordination, the particular element of being placed fn a spec[...]aracter' effecting a

    change of being, Protestant Ordination calls it Junctional, an individual called to perf[...]1994 Report suggests

    ‘relational language,’ Ordination placing the minister in a new relation to others[...]inisters do arises out of the fact
    of their ordination—they are ordained to be ministers. It is[...]
    were not so Integrally Involved. Ordination signifies the formal establishment of
    a new[...]responsibilities In the community.207

    Thus, Ordination Is a leadership function encompassing assigned ta[...]ul—all descriptions of an episcopal concept

    of Ordination, and despite the Report’s earlier claim that authority for ministry and

    Ordination cannot be argued from the New Testament texts.209[...]e ordained because of it. The next development Is ministry as

    ‘representative leadership,’ the minister[...]initial triune

    comparison, that of the ordained ministry sending and gathering, modeling the

    [...]d deacons

    represent God through their three fold ministry. The 1994 Report then adds. Implicit In

    the noti[...]ching,’ but, according to the 1994 Report, this ministry of guardianship

    and authority Is both for orthod[...]p.

    Having to this point located the ordained ministry within the Church, the 1994

    Report enlarges it w[...]h

    ..In no way Implies a devaluation of the ministry of each Christian ...“Christ
    has many ser[...]mation, worship, pastoral care and
    diaconal ministry; but It Is to them that the church solemnly entru[...], the 1994 Report

    considers arguing the ordained ministry as a threefold ministry paralleling the work of

    the Ttinlty, or one order of ministry paralleling the fulfillment of Christ’s ministry as

    prophet, priest and king; or no orders, emphasizing the shared ministry of believers

    through the Spirit,213 all o[...]
    [...]of God's mission covered.

    The presbyter’s ministryministry of presbyter for through these ‘effective signs of the Gospel’

    people are bonded together in the Lord. Ordination includes the responsibility for

    proper administr[...]assembly that the representative identity of the ministry
    or presbyter is most concentrated. Here the[...]en to other Church members.

    The deacon is in ministry in the dispersed community, in the world, witnessing to

    God’s love in creation. It is a ministry in its own right, representative of how service

    should be in the world. Though its is not primarily a ministry of proclamation, there

    will be such occasion. Wh[...]on

    exemplifies it in ‘concentrated form,* as a ministry of solidarity with oppressed,

    marginalized peopl[...]new ways, and challenging structures

    obstructing ministry. By using the model of the triune God to d[...]
    [...]ship In proclamation,

    liturgy and pastoral care. Ordination thus. Is the solemn setting apart for these

    'ess[...]congregational representatives laying on hands In Ordination,

    Ordination referring to the ministry done, not the person. The Report says to talk of the

    'ordained ministry' accentuates clergy/lay difference rather than speaking of ministry

    done; Ordination sets apart to some particular ministry, not to the ordained ministry In

    general.216 The 1994 Report argues that one Ordination and two accreditations Is

    unhelpful. Indicating[...]term.

    In refuting the 1991 reasons for one Ordination-two accreditations, the 1994

    Report rejects the argument stressing the oneness of Christ's ministry.217 It cites the

    Basis of Union which says 'all ministries have a part In the ministry of Christ,' placing

    emphasis on all the diverse forms of ministry for which gifts are given whether ordained

    or lay.218 The 1994 Report says that to argue one ministry of Christ, we should not

    have two differentiated forms of ministry. It also rejects concerns that deacons will be a

    second-class ministry, saying this will not happen If clear dist[...]
    [...]major ecumenical partners.222

    As for whether Ordination Is for life, the 1994Renort Is pragmatic, saying[...]e seen differently. However,

    an understanding of Ordination as less than life-long would significantly underc[...]wn to earth Imagery of Jesus’ life, mission and ministry and

    concrete call of an Incarnate Savior who touched the leper, rather than an abstract view

    of ministry based on the Trinity. The great commission[...]
    need for a flexible understanding of this ministry of Christ within a changing world, the

    renewed d[...]h a power

    struggle between two forms of ordained ministry. The right to preside at the

    Sacraments Is the s[...]s their mutuality, and limiting this Sacramental

    ministry to ministers of the Word marginalizes deacons. Al[...]unique

    contribution to a new model of dlaconate ministry, as It did with ordination of women,

    the dynamic Church being called to new[...]of why any leadership In

    the community requires Ordination, or why particular forms of leadership—presbyter

    and deacon—are selected out for Ordination while excluding other forms of leadership

    like t[...]ltlori-whlch expanded means not creating forms of ministry not

    existing In the major Churches of the[...]
    [...]he Sacraments with people with whom they were In

    ministry. The context was places where the Sacrament was d[...]ing but also the Lord's Supper celebration. While Ordination gave

    Church authorization to preside at t[...]

    As a pilgrim people adapting to new forms of ministry, with ministry the task of all

    God’s people, lay presidency does not diminish the ministry of the ordained or the

    Sacraments. It Is appropr[...]the ecumenical

    movement, suggested one order of ministry but with three functions of bishop,

    presbyter an[...]The Basis of Union of 1971, while emphasizing the ministry of all by

    virtue of their Baptism, adopted a ‘given’ ordained Ministry of the Word, and three other

    ministries—elder,[...]ic Church. The structure was seen as one order of ministry
    [...]ested clarity on the

    Church’s understanding of ministry and Ordination. The 1982 Ordination Statement

    placed the UCA firmly within the Refor[...]lled by the Church by virtue of his/her gifts for ministry, including theological

    training. Other ministrie[...]ntial agreement,’ even though BEM saw

    ordained ministry as constitutive of the Church, ministers as repre[...]Christ to

    the people, and little emphasis on the ministry of all. Involvement In BEM spurred

    another effor[...]1988 Assembly formed a Task Group to ask what the ministry

    needs were for the Church in the next decades. T[...]ch, thus the 1991 Report strongly

    emphasized the ministry of all In the service of the mission of God In th[...]inister. if

    approved, was also to be an ordained ministry. Arguing that Christ’s ministry included
    [...]aching and healing, the 1991 Report suggested one Ordination to the

    ministry of Christ with two accredltatlons--to deacon or m[...]to the 1991 Report and presented a new

    report on ministry and Ordination to the 1994 Assembly. This 1994 Report called the[...]representative’ roles paralleling the threefold ministry and work of the Trinity, the

    oversight (b[...]
    [...]s time. As the 1991 Report tried to do. forms of

    ministry, including those currently ordained, have to be r[...]in the world. To move towards understandings of

    ministry and ordination which have not been part of UCA heritage a[...]
    [...]w Dutney, The Development of the Understanding of Ministry In the
    Australian Church Union Negotiations. 1957[...]conveyed through the structures, yet an ordained Ministry of the Word
    was assumed as ‘given’.
    Th[...]pronounced as fixed and final. Norman Young. The Ministry in the Uniting
    Church In Australia." The[...]this motif in Church history, see Bernard Cooke,
    Ministry to the Word and.Sacrament (Philadelphia: Fortress[...]orrance,
    Roval Priesthood: A Theology of Ordained Ministry (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1955,
    1993); John H. C[...]own: E. J. Dwyer, 1992);
    Kevin Giles, Patterns of Ministry Among the First Christians (Melbourne: Collins Do[...]ecial and concurrent
    commissioning to an order of ministry beyond the gifts in Corinthians and Romans of
    the[...]dam and Charles Black, 1969); Marjorie Warkentin, Ordination: a
    Biblical-Historical View (Grand Rapids: Wm B.[...]representing the same understanding of an ordered ministry.

    21 McCaughey, “Church Union In[...]
    himself has provided with many kinds of ministry, in which one special kind of
    ministry, that of the ordained clergy, is set apart to str[...]ar witness in their various callings whose
    ministry Is set In the heart of the secular world's manifold activity. New Delhi
    Report. 1962, cited In Cooke, Ministry to Word and Sacrament. 3.

    26 Joint Commis[...]aism for overseeing arty task. Giles, Patterns of
    Ministry. 80-1. Titus represents a period of New Testament[...]r/John Knox Press, 1992) 353-4.

    28 While Ordination for the apostolic ministry Is historical, the Lund statement
    Indicated there are different explanations for what this ‘Ordination* signifies in different
    Most of[...]d has called forth In his church a
    stated ministry. To this ministry alone the leadership of certain acts of worship[...]Report (London: 1953) 41-2. See also Cooke. Ministry to Word and Sacrament.
    41; J. Robinson, “A Crit[...](London: SCM Press, 1964) 63: Giles. Patterns of Ministry.

    29 The Report says Calvin and hi[...]
    [...]ney calls this the 'distinctive character' of the Ministry of the Word.
    Through the ministry of these members Christ constitutes the church. I[...]. Giles says the few New Testament passages where Ordination Is
    thought to be implied cannot, on their own, answer *why*? While the “mystification* of
    Ordination once helped preserve the status of clergy, he say[...]hy some think It so Important. Giles, Patterns of Ministry. 174.

    63 McCaughey talks of Christ’s call to some Into the ministry as a constant
    reminder of the priority of divine[...]something more. The 1963 Report said the ordained ministry was exercised “within the
    corporate priesthood[...]Union,
    stressing the distinctive character of the Ministry of the Word. The Presbytery charged
    with episcopa[...]lay persons In this action:
    The ordained ministry is not an exclusive circle; the hands of the lay[...]aining testify to the call of the whole church to ministry and the
    [...]er Is the third part of the prophet, priest, king
    ministry, rule and oversight, in the mode of King David as[...]761 will be discussing here both the 1982 Ordination Statement and Douglas
    Miller’s study book Ordained to the Ministry of the Word (Melbourne: Uniting Church
    [...]rained, with little representation from the wider ministry of all. a problem I think If
    such a Commission has a mandate to formulate doctrines of the ministry of the whole
    people of God.

    78 Many publ[...]ced with every call for re-evaluatlon of
    ordained ministry, It has never been documented as having been seriously addressed.

    80 Christ Mostert, “The Ministry of Lay and Ordained," Trinity Occasional Papers
    2: 2 (1983) 17.

    81 Miller. Ordained to the Ministry of the Word.

    82 Assembly Standing Comm[...]btle. Dorothy McMahon, "Two
    Questions for Ministry," Trinity Occasional Papers 3: 1 (January[...]

    84 Miller, Ordained to the Ministry of the Word. 4.

    85 As described In the la[...]emphasis on visible
    unity as expressed in shared ministry and Sacraments, and thus the return to previous
    d[...]l ‘language.*

    86 Commission on Doctrine, Ordination: A Statement for Study and Comment
    (Melbourne: Un[...]) Question 22.

    87 Miller, Ordained to the Ministry of the Word. 8.

    88 Miller says the fact[...]91 Ibid., 15.

    92 Steward says a view of Ordination linked with theological education finds no
    warran[...]l Papers
    2: 2 (July 1983) 51.

    93 Miller, Ordination to the MinistryOrdination Statement, and Miller’s comments, were anxious to reclaim an undisputed
    authority for the ordained ministry In a climate of the ministry of all. BEM had also
    minimized the ministry of aft concept. Ibid,, 54-55.

    95 Ibid., 2[...]ees that lay pastor* is a contradiction of terms. Ministry
    of the Word Is a call to and preparation f[...]
    [...]Place of the Lay Pastor in
    Relation to the Ministry." Trinity Occasional Papers 2: 2 (1983) 65.

    99 Michael Owen, “The Act of Ordination,* Trinity Occasional Pacers 2: 2 (July
    1983) 46;[...]Text and the UCA," 54. However Breward separates
    Ordination from the intensive theological study Spykerboer a[...]t and the UCA," 53.

    102 Mostert, “The Ministry of Lay and Ordained," 29. Mostert’s terminology[...]he did not ordain.
    I reply that effective ministry of the Word requires more concentration of purpos[...]D’Arcy Wood, "Why we need the
    Ordained Ministry." Trinity Occasional Papers 2: 2 (1983) 13.
    In pr[...]ers. He saw them as fulfilling the same office of ministry by presiding
    over the Sacraments and preaching, a[...]aith and Order Commission, Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. Faith and
    Order Paper No.l 11 (Geneva: WC[...]
    [...]see the community as the whole people of God and
    ministry a function of that.

    109 f & O Commission, Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. 21.

    110 Giles says the distinction bet[...]sonal divine call and enabling which, in
    ordination, the church simply recognized. Giles, Patterns of Ministry. 195.

    111 F & O Commission, Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. 21.

    112 Ibid., 22.

    113 Commissi[...]116 F & O Commission, Baptism. Eucharist and Ministry. 22.

    117 Ibid., 23.

    [...]dected by the

    130 Task Group on Ministry of the Church, Report on Ministry in the Uniting
    Church. Sixth Assembly. UGA. 19911[...]rguson,
    “Practical Theology and the Practice of Ministry,* Trinity Occasional Papers 5: 1 (June
    1986) 64-7[...]ing Aboriginal rights.

    133 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report.

    134 Ibid., 9. This statem[...]preachers and teachers.

    136 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 13.

    137 The Task Gr[...]

    143 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 20.

    144 Ibid.. 24.[...]es the language of ‘representative' of Christ's ministry and
    reinterprets It from a sacerdotal understandi[...]ties is the question.

    150 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 37. The claim that only with such
    m[...]k will be done may suggest an Invalidation of the ministry
    of the laity in the world for centuries, just as similar claims about the ordained ministry
    may have done. For a further discussion of the de[...]ng of Servanthood: Some Implications for Diaconal Ministry In
    the Uniting Church In Australia," Dlakonla: UC[...]1 (October 1993) 1-

    151 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 37-38.

    152 Ibid.. 38.[...]154 There was a significant reaction to the Ministry of the Word being the last
    ministry discussed, especially when in the 1963 Renort and the Basis of Union the
    Ministry of the Word was discussed In association with Chr[...]section on

    155 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 47.

    156 The Commission on D[...]ffirmed it be developed as a
    recognized, ordained ministry. Including it here for completeness for an unders[...]t In
    detail. The 1991 Report named It an ordained ministry since it carried out the same
    task but In[...]

    158 Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 57.

    159 xhe Committee on M[...]sion
    since its applications would affect new ways ministry was done in ethnic and outlying

    16[...]e. UCA, Proposals for Implementation of
    Community Ministry (NSW: UCA, 1992) 9. Such part-time non-stipendiar[...]r of the Word,
    thus not suggesting a second-class ministry. The Committee on Ministries circulated a
    paper f[...]Committee on Ministries, “Appendix B, Community Ministry: Report on
    Responses from Presbyteries and Synods[...]tion to the 1994 Assembly was for a toy community
    ministry, even though the 1991 Assembly had decided for its Ordination. Ibid., 72.

    167 Minutes of the Sixth Ass[...]be done by virtue of one’s Baptism
    rather than Ordination.
    ..many [of those responding to the Task Group’s consultation) saw baptism as the
    ordination’ of every Christian to share in the mission of[...]des the context for proper
    understanding of ordination or commissioning, because there is still too much[...]king which does not appropriately relate ordained ministry and the
    ministry of the whole people of God. Task Group on Ministry, 1991 Report. 14.

    168 Miixutes_ofthe_UCA[...]ar the
    UCA Assembly voted to assign the review of ministry and Ordination to a wider body
    than the Commission on Doc[...]
    [...]ged task of defining the UCA’s understanding on Ordination to the
    Doctrine Commission, G1U was made convenor[...]n 1994 would aim at restoring an understanding
    of Ordination In keeping with current trends In NCCA In which t[...]l circles.

    169 Editorial, “Good-bye to Ordination and all 11131,* The Aubum Report 3: 5
    (1991) 3. M[...]ersal.’

    171 David Rankin,“Good-bye to Ordination and all That," The Aubum Report 3:
    5 (1991) 4.

    172 Douglas Mtiler, "Good-bye to Ordination and all That," The Aubum Report 3:
    5 (1991) 3; Norman Young, “Good-bye to OrdinationOrdination and all
    That," 5.

    173 Rankin. "Good-lye to Ordination and all That," 4. Raiser’s paradigm change
    had[...]Certainly there Is an Australian context for ministry, but does that make us so
    extraordinary? Th[...]t. 3: 1 (1991) 6.

    174 Young, "Good-lye to Ordination and all That," 4-5. Referral of decisions
    down th[...]r discussion. See also Norman Young, “Crisis In
    Ministry." Trinity Occasional Papers (November 1993) 9-17.

    175 Young, “Good-bye to Ordinationministry. Ordained ministers should be willing to go to
    these Parishes.

    176 Gordon Watson, “Good-bye to Ordination and all That," 5.
    [...]1994. 27.

    178 Commission on Doctrine, Ordination and Ministry In the Uniting Church: A
    Report from the Asse[...]a: UCA, “The Renewed Dlaconate Is a Sacramental Ministry:
    Statement to the 1994 Assembly UCA." supplem[...]d
    President of ACC, said the 1991 idea of one Ordination and two accreditations
    theologically d[...]
    [...]sing the triune God as a model
    first for ordained ministry rather than apostollclty belonging to the dynamic[...]phesians passage Is a Christological argument for
    ministry which the Report claimed to move away from as ina[...]mbined with the customary
    expectation that ordination sets people apart for such ministry for the rest of
    their life, perhaps explains why even In the UCA and its predecessors ordination
    has usually been treated quast-sacramentaU[...]e is certainly no justification for the idea that ordination
    confers upon an Individual addition[...]
    [...]ght In the Corinthians situation was not one of a ministry In
    community, but of Itinerant leader with ov[...]he 1994 Report had earlier argued that a model of ministry cannot be
    found from the New Testament. The I[...]bishop to the whole world Church by virtue of his Ordination.

    211 Commission on Doctrine, 1994[...]ized, not as a duality but as the totality of the ministry of Christ, diversity In
    unity.[...]l situation assumes, because of the parity of
    ministry. The UCA has claimed one order of ministry based on the Chrlstologlcal ‘one
    ministry of Christ,* and has to hold somehow to tha[...]
    [...]rgument raises questions of what understanding of Ordination is in
    play here.

    229 Ibid., 12. T[...]
    [...]CHAPTER 7


    In the first six chap[...]lined the changing and conflicting arguments for

    ministry and Ordination in the UCA, representing both different theologie[...]s a way forward for the

    UCA In its discussion on ministry and Ordination. This proposal will take account of

    the past tra[...]ix chapters, there Is no uniform understanding of ministry

    and Ordination which must Inform the decisions, thus the choice[...]dialogue towards a transformed

    understanding of ministry and Ordination.

    [...]authentic legitimation and against their wishes.

    Ordination is authority given to leadership, but the communi[...]conversation about it.

    Ordination in the History of the Church

    [...]Church of the Christian Empire. The rite was an 'Ordination,'

    entry Into one of the ‘orders* of the Empire[...]ever-increasing

    theological significance, until Ordination was In itself all that was necessary, any

    charis[...]ilar tracing back to Peter, laying on of hands at Ordination from bishop to

    successive bishop becoming the si[...]change effected through these hands. Rather than Ordination ensuring

    ‘guardianship of the truth,' a ‘cha[...]cralization of clergy, they retained

    the rite of Ordination, clearly distinguishing between ordained a[...]

    While the community may inherit Christ's ministry. It Is specifically designated to

    apostles, prop[...]Calvin argued these

    functions Into one order of ministry, divinely given at ascension to the apostl[...]
    [...]half of Christ and continuing Christ's

    threefold ministry.13 Whether the argument for the order is a[...]
    [...]in the order of things, including

    some called to ministry of the Word. In Ordination, the Church tested the abilities of a

    candidate,[...]r lndelibls* for the Catholic priest both arguing Ordination as God-

    given, a special status based on divine[...]one else to accept.19

    Ordination in the Heritages of the UCA

    The UCA has borrowed widely from its history for arguments for Ordination, as I

    have demonstrated over six chapters. Witho[...]*princlple of order* argued a continuous order of Ministry of the Word, a

    view of order he found support for in Ephesians and the Pauline communities, the

    Ministry of the Word and Sacraments were an activit[...]
    [...]places, recognizing the

    contextual nature of the Ministry of the Word. When Calvinism was expanded In

    Pres[...]e Spirit, not

    passive receivers from an ordained ministry. The lay emphasis on Scottish

    ordained ministry, which has varied from the high classical Pastora[...]art with my heart?"

    2. New Testament patterns of ministry. While each of these traditions have argued for

    orders of ministry, whether as a priestly, prophetic or ruling order[...]traditions recognize that

    patterns and orders of ministry cannot be argued conclusively from biblical ‘pr[...]e Word. Arguments have been made

    for a threefold ministry detectable in the New Testament, while others cla[...]ative as best and contextually

    located. The 1982 Ordination Statement saw the difficulty of arguing from ‘t[...]est developed

    these skills. The ‘authority* of Ordination lay in the Church's public attestment to t[...]
    [...]espoused, especially In the Australian scene, the ministry of all through the gifts of the

    Spirit In the co[...]arguments made by the UCA and Its

    traditions for Ordination, It Is that there Is no ‘convergence’ of thou[...]hat needed substantiating.

    3. Every argument for Ordination has been used at some time In the three tradition[...]nity for the Church as a whole.

    5. A theology of ministry which centers on the intersubjective, rela[...]
    [...]rent F & O stalemate being how that one episcopal ministry and

    Sacraments will look. The problem for the UCA is its different understanding of

    ministry from episcopal Churches, a difference not[...]
    [...]rgy, rules for handling Sacraments, celibacy, and Ordination of women are

    important. In questions of Ordination, they appeal to the traditional role of the bishop recognize, assess and validate through ordination the call of God In any
    person In who[...]
    [...]Right feeling

    Central to worship Sacrament[...]
    [...]n, one of the essentials Is a Sacramental view of Ordination, preferably with

    a bishop laying on hands[...]
    [...]a way not

    like other roles. It promotes a single ministry pattern where service of the Body is

    delegated t[...]against other roles. The dualism has to do with

    Ordination, the single practice which has influenced a dicho[...]for diverse situations, the emphasis was not on

    Ordination to an office, but recognition of a gift to be use[...]the basis of the New
    Testament practice of ordination. Leaders are not 'set apart' from the church
    as a whole through an act of ‘ordination.’ They are the church, along with the
    res[...]osition of hands,
    there is no evidence that ordination to office was a regular practice...It was a[...]tied to that distinction certain
    exclusive ministry functions.46

    No matter how much contemporary proponents of Ordination 're-image* Ordination, the

    essential duality preserved in the c[...]
    reasons. However, In recent years, the Women’s Ordination Movement In the Catholic

    Church and some other f[...]concluding

    that Including women In the ordained ministry is not the solution, since Ordination

    remains patriarchal and hierarchical by Its very[...]hurches, challenges to patriarchy resulted In the Ordination of

    women. However, behind the described functional understanding of Ordination still lies

    the problem of kyrlarchy. The roots of Ordination lie In the move from dlsclpleshlps of

    equals to[...]h clear distinctions

    between clergy and lay. The Ordination debate ever since has been structured on the


    valldations-both theological and pragmatic-for Ordination, often refuting each other,

    suggests there Is so[...]the ‘but...’ of the functional

    argument for Ordination, even If the ‘service* Is no longer continued:[...]never cease to be a person ordained to the
    ministry of the Word. It is a very drastic thing to expel[...]r cause
    him to resign, from the recognized ministry of a particular denomination.52

    While the ‘authority’ argued for Ordination may be cased In terms of fulfilling a

    [...]ordained responsible for thus a limited role of‘ministry’ within the total

    ministry of the whole people of God. have the mandate to decide theologically what the

    ministry of all is to be, without Input from the majority[...]that task by half the votes, while

    the 1% whose ministry Is limited to a servicing function within that mi[...]confusion in the UCA as to what is authorized by Ordination. Is it to do

    the Sacraments, or is it to[...]
    [...], realizing the inadequacy of other arguments for Ordination, claimed the

    Tradition of the Church to o[...]

    was not Just given to Individual leaders: ministry was not settled In one representative;

    but the S[...]idst was recognized.127

    Formal structures of ministry and Ordination are 'problematic' for Aboriginal

    people in a cul[...]has

    motivated some Aboriginal leaders to choose Ordination for these reasons, going against

    shared leadersh[...]ming the tradition’

    over against the rest.

    Ordination has also caused problems for the Aboriginal Churc[...]culture’s experience-whlch Is what happens when Ordination Is

    necessary for presiding at the Euchari[...]
    [...]of the tradition he Is

    required to uphold where Ordination determines community access to the Eucharist.[...]to avoid Imposing on Aboriginal churches forms of ministry which
    were established by men to serve situ[...]settings. I think we should allow forms of ministry to evolve according to

    From n[...]stern ways, claimed against the wisdom of elders. Ordination Is

    also the only way Aboriginal leaders w[...]
    demonstrated by the 1994 UCA vote against Ordination of community ministers.

    Aboriginal Churches need[...]36

    In spite of the problem with the model of Ordination, Aboriginal people are

    developing their own unde[...]sensitivity to the Aboriginal context and shared ministry, reflect the Aboriginal pattern

    of learni[...]
    [...]ond Church.

    A major problem for Aboriginal ministry today Is that the model of the Second
    Churc[...]he unspoken pattern
    expected for Aboriginal ministry. In particular, the association of the model of[...]authoritarian and solo or heroic styles of
    ministry Is a great hindrance to the development of indige[...]church should determine the shape of the ordained ministry
    whose role is one of helping a community be[...]ously the body
    of Chrlst...In restructuring ministry around the notion of the basic community,[...]
    [...]teaching of lay participation and leadership in

    ministry.145 Significantly, the history of Australian Chur[...]Assembly. As part of this affirmation, models of

    ministry which alienate rather than include must be questi[...]tory. If the UCA claims a functional meaning for

    Ordination, and insists that the needs of the context define the way ministry is done.

    Aboriginal people’s experience[...]
    [...]ontinue an Inherent racism, since "reasons’ for Ordination

    are Inherently tied to the attainment of[...]

    with lay enthusiasm for expressions of ministry wider than the traditional minister of

    the Word.[...]rne College of Divinity, only 20% are working for Ordination, and many

    theological colleges which traditionally only accepted candidates for the ordained

    ministry, report similar trends.170 The National Network f[...]lergy

    authority. Some old arguments for ordained ministry no longer exist:

    To respond to such[...]
    [...]cally trained lay

    leadership and bypass ordained ministry. The community minister Is a reality In many

    are[...]do theology. At a time when funding for ordained ministry training Is short laity

    are creating new model f[...]t only undertaking training to resource their own ministry In community and

    world, but paying from their own funds.174 They are claiming a shared ministry and

    theologizing their own doctrine of the ministry, regardless of the debate about

    Ordination, thus spawning a quiet revolution from wit[...]
    [...]e Church would explore new models and patterns of ministry, but

    the current view of the people Is that
    [...]the area of new and creative
    approaches to ministry, nor in the area of the training and Invol[...]
    [...]ained minister, but questions about the dichotomy Ordination caused in practice,

    especially given the strong[...]leges did not

    prepare the ordained for practical ministry.

    ...many lay members of the Uniting Church[...]be more open
    to new models and patterns of ministry than ordained ministers themselves
    might be[...], and that ‘some of the members of the ordained ministry might

    like to keep It that way.*192 The problem[...]the Word, who made decisions about the nature of ministry, including lay

    roles In min'stiy, had little awa[...]move from hierarchical and authoritarian Ideas of ministry to a shared ministry

    of equals needs a theology of ministry to accompany it. The Christological model[...]
    [...]has also found new models of mutuality and shared ministry.200

    There have been recent moves to t[...]
    [...]tures of household ordering, the model from which Ordination also evolved.212

    in terms of the possibility of new ways of ministry.

    The fact that Jesus preached a kin[...]
    [...]confining leadership to the unitary or threefold ministry.
    There never was a ministry without a believing community, nor was there a[...]notion that order is constituted by the ordained ministry as distinct from the
    charisma of the commun[...]contributions to offer; and develop a theology of ministry which will

    facilitate Its mission and also provi[...]nables It to say confidently that the

    three-fold ministry is Just as inadequate a framework for ministry as the one ministry.
    There seems no reason to give the three-fold ministry such weight in the
    ecumenical dialogue. It[...]lism that
    makes nonsense of the talk about ministry of the whole church. It would be
    better to scrap this model of ministry. We should be able to show how the
    ministry of Christ can be experienced in a non-hlerarchlca[...]own social context. The various understandings of ministry and ordination which I

    have discussed throughout this work have[...]of God’s providential work, thus the

    order of ministry was part of God’s divine order to preser[...]
    [...]is of community was lost.233

    Where then does Ordination, the setting apart of some for selected duties wi[...]tion of whether particular ministries are needed. Ministry is primarily

    the Word of God to us, which[...]
    [...]and the

    present has authorized an office of the ministry, and this office has been ordained.

    However, as[...]n note: ecclesiastical office of the ministry Is a relative or dependent or
    consequent ne[...]rable from the questions of the definition of the ministry
    and ecclesiastical office.235

    I am suggest[...]rt.

    The question becomes the question of the ordination of this limited 'office,' the Issue

    In all the debates when a new ministry challenges the old view of the ordained office.23[...]cal office Is dependent on and

    consequent to the Ministry of the Word238--the ‘church's commission[...]
    [...]cision-making power associated with this rite

    of Ordination. It Is also an important question given the centr[...]as many options for a functional understanding of Ordination, some of

    which have been discussed by the variou[...]ore hierarchical and Sacramental understanding of Ordination In episcopal

    succession. In order to be[...]
    [...]than clerical ‘recontextualizing’ of ordained ministry, the people

    must take part In this ‘recontextualizing’ of their life together, deciding what place

    Ordination has within their midst, and what authority Is sig[...]unity must understand what it ‘authorizes’ In Ordination. Aguirre

    has rearranged the ‘chairs’ In the community. The claim of Ordination as tradition’ by

    UCA documents removes legitim[...]what they understand as ‘authority’ given at Ordination, and

    what specific role it plays In the UCA’s[...]ection with consultation throughout the Church on ministry, not

    just In councils.245 This approach w[...]
    [...]ding by the people of what is ‘authorized’ in Ordination does

    matter, since Ordination, although it may be described in functional ’se[...]tand and agree to what authority is

    conferred in Ordination, then they can decide together when the authority given is

    overstepped. If the ordained ministry is the Church’s commission to get the Go[...]
    [...]idated l.e. one or other of the options regarding Ordination, Cobb sees dialogue as

    each person bringing his/[...]The aim Is not to cement another understanding of ministry In place, but to be In

    process, balancing[...]
    [...]In the last six chapters, I have suggested that

    Ordination has become a divisive issue, creating a grading o[...]scattered’ modes of being as

    justification for Ordination of some also continue dualistic splits in the Lao[...]pper Inextricably with certain forms of ordained

    ministry and thus deny base communities the Sacrament. The[...]rtation Is not to argue that my understanding of

    ministry and Ordination should be adopted by the UCA Rather I am a[...]

    The confusion about the understanding of ministry and Ordination In the UCA today

    results from a variety of diffe[...]a visible eucharlstlc unity served by a threefold ministry. The three traditions

    which came Into the UCA ho[...]copal, maintaining a functional

    understanding of ministry, albeit as a distinct order argued from various N[...]UCA documents

    thus opting for an explanation of Ordination as traditional.' The 1991 Report turned to

    conte[...]ssional needs of the UCA determined the forms

    of ministry to be ordained. The difference between con[...]
    theological arguments for Ordination are represented in the arguments of the 1991

    Rep[...]ional theology which limits the understanding

    of ministry and Ordination. However in arguing this functional understanding of

    ministry. I have also suggested that Ordination as a rite which sets apart some

    functions and no[...]lism which limits the expression of new

    forms of ministry defying traditional categories. I have therefore argued that any

    discussions of ministry and Ordination must consider all the options which a functional

    approach to Ordination suggests, including Ordination of the whole community, of

    many in the community for limited roles, and also the Ordination of none,

    commissioning being one's Baptism.[...]ordained ministries, amongst others, but removes Ordination as a rite which creates an

    unnecessary and inhib[...]many. I am arguing that as long as discussions on ministry and

    Ordination in the UCA continue, all options must be considered, including a careful

    dialogue about the validity of any Ordination as well as the validity of different

    [...], and thus espouse a threefold episcopal order of ministry, or one

    order with three functions, has allowed only certain theologies of ministry and

    Ordination to be heard by members at large, and that[...]

    1 See Kevin Giles, Patterns of Ministry Among the First Christians (Melbourne:
    Collins Do[...]or a discussion on this topic, see Bernard Cooke. Ministry to Word and
    Sacrament: History and Theology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976); A Warkentln,
    Ordination: a Biblical-Historical View (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982); Giles, Patterns
    of Ministry: Hans von Campenhausen, Ecclesiastical Authority[...]dam & Charles
    Black. 1969); William Tabbemee, ed. Ministry in Australian Churches (Melbourne;
    JBCE, 1987): H[...]isco: Harper,

    6 Giles, Patterns of Ministry. 194.

    7 Jesus never referred to the disc[...]ebrews,
    which Is used to support a later priestly ministry, tire only book which mentions such a
    concept, ar[...]Dichotomy," 234-35.

    8 Giles, Patterns of Ministry. 195.

    9 Flemming notes that while Reforme[...]are more similarities In relation to the ordained
    ministry than difference, BEM discussions focusing on the[...]e Clergy/Laity
    Dichotomy," 232.

    10 Cooke. Ministry to Word and Sacrament. 46.

    11 Ibid[...]
    [...]retation' of the text In the understanding of the
    ministry of all believers.

    13 T. F. Torrance, Roval Priesthood: A Theology of Ordained MinistryMinistryMinistry.

    17 Christ Mostert, “The Ministry of Lay and Ordained," Trinity Occasional
    Papers.[...]alities within this order.
    While not Sacramental, Ordination was the setting of the seal on the divine call, a[...]uch an argument on the ’call’ for an ordained ministry from Calvin, one is claiming
    something more than[...]ts that there Is
    no category of a professional ‘ministry’ as we understand It today In the early Church,[...]uld do the Sacraments, the two points on which ‘Ordination
    Is argued. The breaking of bread In homes was[...]ion (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1991); M. Warkentin,
    Ordination: a Biblical-Historical View.

    22 K[...]

    41 L. William Countryman, The Language of Ordination: Ministry in an
    Ecumenical Context (Philadelphia: Tr[...]
    [...]o: Harper & Row, 1985). The November 1995 Women's
    Ordination Conference presentations by Elisabeth Schussler F[...]the Conference change Its
    name from The Women’s Ordination Conference to Disclpleship of Equals. The
    essenti[...]in the hierarchical
    structure at all. The Women's Ordination Conference, November 10-12, 1995,
    [...]Chureh. 62.

    52 Michael Owen, “The Act of Ordination," Trinity Occasional Papers 2: 2 (1983)
    46. Owen'[...]personal’ vote in the
    1983 papers for retaining Ordination even without the corresponding 'service.'[...]
    [...]ee Graeme M. Griffin, They Came to Care: Pastoral Ministry in Colonial
    Australia (Melbourne: JBCE, 19[...]
    [...]n In the UCA, see Edward C. Lehman Jr„ Women In
    Ministry: Receptivity and Resistance (Melbourne: JBCE, 199[...]lso Muriel Porter, Women In the Church: the Great Ordination Debate In Australia
    (Rlngwood: Penguin, 19[...]
    [...]ing which affect the discussion on
    leadership and Ordination. For a bibliography on Aboriginal Religion[...]
    [...]ological Institutions. It caters for all types of ministry
    training, youth worker, elder, Christian Educatio[...]play In traditional theological education towards Ordination.

    172 Hughes and Blombery, Patterns of Fai[...]e allocated was
    ‘empowering people for life and ministry, Including lay formation and education.’
    Assemb[...]the 1994 Report’s Traditional' understanding of Ordination came from the
    secretary of a Synod with a high Aboriginal population, suggesting that Ordination was
    a 'dinosaur* being mistaken for a rhin[...]
    [...]y produce a more
    determined move by some to argue Ordination’s validation in traditional' rather than in
    fun[...]places e.g. new understandings of leadership, the ministry of all. Ordination of
    community ministers.

    187 Ibid.,[...]
    [...]rch with a Human Face: a New Expanded Theology of Ministry (New York
    Crossroad, 1992) 66.

    213 gee Ed[...]oad, 1993) 216-21. See also Edward Schillebeeckx, Ministry: Leadership in the
    Community of Jesus Christ (New[...]s may outnumber Church
    buildings; non-stipendiary ministry with part-time secular work would serve th[...]
    [...]ained: Lutheran Perspectives on the Office of the Ministry, ed. Todd Nichol and Marc
    Kolden (Minneapolis: Fo[...]ated In BEM.
    Paul Bearsley-Murray, ed. Anyone for Ordination? a Contribution to the Debate on
    Ordination (Tunbridge Wells: MARC, 1993).

    238 Nich[...]221.

    239 Gerhard O. Forde, “The Ordained Ministry," in Called & Ordained, ed. Nichol
    and Kolden (Mi[...]sake of good order, making a distinction between ministry of the Gospel
    (to the world) and ministry to the Gospel of the ordained. He notes that Ordination to
    the public office reflects Luther's view of God's caring ministry for creation in terms of
    the three estates, polit[...]ction and Structure of Gospelling: an Essay on ‘Ministry'
    according to the Augsburg Confession," The Sixte[...]dge here Holden's warning that not everything Is "ministry.*
    However, I find the argument that makes[...]
    [...]. Whitehead and Evelyn Eaton Whitehead, Method In Ministry: Theological
    Reflection and Christian Ministry (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980).

    250[...]ent In lay education and evaluating and reshaping ministry, that
    credibility has to do with how the m[...]
    [...]&Row, 1961.

    Beasley-Murray. Paul. ed. Anyone for Ordination? A Contribution to the Debate on
    Ordination. Tunbridge Wells: MARC, 1993.

    Beaty, Mary[...]
    [...]John C. Pastor and People: a Study of Church and Ministry In Wesleyan,
    Methodism from the Death[...]

    _______ . "Summary of Doctrines concerning the Ministry of the Word and Sacraments."
    In Cal[...]
    (September 1994). Typewritten.

    . Ordination and Ministry In the Uniting Church: A Report from the Assembly[...]tanding
    Committee, UCA, 1994.

    _______ • Ordination: a Statement for Study and Comment. Melbourne: Un[...]Committee on Ministries. “Appendix B, Community Ministry: Report on Responses from
    Presbyteries and S[...]Blackburn, Victoria: Dove, 1995.

    Cooke, Bernard. Ministry to the Word and Sacrament. Philadelphia: Fortress[...]1987.

    Countryman, L. William. The Language of Ordination: Ministry in an Ecumenical
    Context. Philadelph[...]
    [...]a: UCA. “The Renewed Dlaconate Is a Sacramental Ministry: Statement to the
    1994 Assembly UCA." In Ordination and Ministry In the Uniting Church.
    Commission on Doctri[...]______ . "The Development of the Understanding of Ministry In the Australian Church
    Union Nego[...]
    [...]WCC, 1971.

    ----------- . Baptism. JEucharlst and Ministry. Faith and Order Paper No. 111. Geneva:[...]Graeme. “Practical Theology and the Practice of Ministry." Trinity Occasional
    Papers 5: 1 (Ju[...]
    [...]rk: Basic Books, 1973.

    Giles. Kevin. Patterns of Ministry Among the First Christians. Melbourne: Collins Do[...].

    Griffin, Graeme M. They Came to Care: Pastoral Ministry in Colonial Australia.
    Melbourne; JBCE, 1[...]unction and Structure of Gospelling: An Essay on 'Ministry'
    according to the Augsburg Confessi[...]
    [...]Books, 1987.

    Horsfteld, Rod. “Good-bye to Ordination and allThat." The Auburn Report 3: 5 (1991) 5.
    [...]4: 1 (1992) 2-3.

    Lehman, Edward C. Jr. Women in Ministry: Recenttvity and Resistance. Melbourne:[...]
    [...]ress. 1993.

    McMahon, Dorothy. "Two Questions for Ministry." Trinity Occasional Papers 3: 1
    (January 19[...]Servanthood: Some Implications for
    Dlaconal Ministry In the Uniting Church In Australia." Dlakonla: UC[...]&T. Clark, 1985.

    Miller, Douglas. “Good-bye to Ordination and all That." The Auburn Report 3: 5 (1991)

    _______ . Ordained to the Ministry of the WoTd. Melbourne: Uniting Church Press, 197[...]ligion Scholars Press, 1979.

    Mostert, Chris. The Ministry of Lay and Ordained." Trinity Occasional P[...]
    [...]utheran Perspectives on the
    Office of the Ministry. Minneapolis; Fortress Press, 1990.

    Nlesel, Wilh[...]n & Unwin,

    Owen, Michael. The Act of Ordination." Trinity Occasional Papers 2: 2 (July 198[...]

    _______ . Women in the Church: the Great Ordination Debate In Australia. Ringwood,
    Victoria: P[...]ublications, 1991.

    Rankin. David. “Good-bye to Ordination and all That." The Auburn Report 3: 5 (199[...]
    [...]orv of God. New York: Crossroad, 1993.

    _______ . Ministry: Leadership In the Community of Jesus Christ. New[...]with a Human Face: A New and Expanded Theology of Ministry.
    New York: Crossroad, 1992.

    Schneider, La[...]“The Place of the Lay Pastor In Relation to the Ministry." Trinity
    Occasional Papers 2: 2 (Ju[...]
    [...]tudies. Adelaide: AASR, 1988.

    Tabbemee, William. Ministry in Australian Churches. Melbourne: JBCE, 1987.

    Church Press, 1989.

    Task Group on Ministry of the Church. Ministry in the Uniting Church In Australia:
    Report of the Task Group on Ministry of the Church to the Sixth Assembly..
    Uniti[...]g Committee,

    _______ . A Vision for Ministry in Australia. Sydney: Assembly UCA, 1991.

    Taylor[...]e. T. F. Roval Priesthood: A Theology of Ordained Ministry. 2d. ed. Edinburgh: T.
    &T. Clark, 1[...]
    [...]_____ . Proposals for Implementation of Community Ministry. NSW: UCA, 1992.

    Upham, Bruce. “Episcop[...]
    Charles Black. 1969.

    Wardlaw, Harry. “Ministry and the Word of God." Trinity Occasional Papers 2: 2 (July,
    1983) 3-7.

    Warkentln, Marjorie. Ordination: a Biblical-Historical View. Grand Rapids: William B.
    Eerdmans, 1982.

    Watson Gordon. “Good-bye to Ordination and all That." The Auburn Report 3: 5 (199[...]
    [...]James D. and Whitehead, Evelyn Eaton. Methods In Ministry: Theological
    Reflection and Christian Ministry. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.

    Williams, An[...]Uniting Church Centre for Ministry[...]
    [...]Press, 1986.

    _______ . "Why we need the Ordained Ministry." Trinity Occasional Panera 2: 2 (July
    198[...]Allen & Unwin, 1993.

    Young, Norman. “Crisis in Ministry." Trinity Occasional Papers (November 1993) 9-17.

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    Ministry And Ordination In The Uniting Church In Australia: An His[...]